IEC Publications

Dive into the wealth of knowledge generated by the Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) through our collection of publications. As a pioneering force in photovoltaic research, IEC’s contributions span materials innovation, solar grid integration, and more. Explore the latest insights and groundbreaking discoveries that illuminate the path toward a sustainable energy future.
CURRENT PUBLICATIONS: 2020 – Present 892 Submissions to Date
2023

“Interface engineering by intermediate hydrogen plasma treatment using dc-PECVD for silicon heterojunction solar cells,” A. Soman, U. K. Das and S. S. Hegedus, ACS Appl. Electron. Mater. 5, 803, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaelm.2c01336, (2023).

2023

“Non-Radiative Recombination Dominates Voltage Losses in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells Fabricated Using Different Methods,” Alexandra M. Bothwell, Jake Wands, Michael F. Miller, Ana Kanevce, Stefan Paetel, Polyxeni, Tsoulka, Thomas Lepetit, Nicolas Barreau, Nicholas Valdes, William Shafarman, Angus Rockett, Aaron R. Arehart and Darius Kuciauskas, Solar RRL, 7, 2300075, https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.202300075, (2023).

2023

“Peculiar bond length dependence in (Ag,Cu)GaSe2 alloys and its impact on the bandgap bowing,” Hans H. Falk, Stefanie Eckner, Michael Seifert, Konrad Ritter, Sergiu Levcenko, Timo Pfeiffelmann, Edmund Welter, Silvana Botti, William N. Shafarman, Claudia S. Schnohr, APL Materials, 11, 111105, https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0164407, (2023).

2023

“Process-induced losses by plasma leakage in lithography-free shadow masked interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction architectures,” Anishkumar Soman, Ujjwal K. Das, Nuha Ahmed, Arpan Sinha, Mool C. Gupta, Steven S. Hegedus, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 166, 1st November 2023, 107762, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2023.107762, (2023).

2023

“Pyrolyzer Assisted Vapor Transport Deposition of Antimony-doped Cadmium Telluride,” Bin Du, Kevin Dobson, Brian McCandless, Aayush Nahar, Ujjwal Das, Shannon Fields Fields, Aaron Arehart, William Shafarman, Proc. 50th IEEE Photovoltiac Specialists Conference, 2023, (2023).

2023

“Methylamine Post-Deposition Treatments of Vapor-Deposited Perovskite Thin Films,” Chaiwarut Santiwipharat, Austin G. Kuba, Kevin D. Dobson, Ujjwal K. Das, William N. Shafarman, Proceedings 50th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, 2023, (2023).

2023

“Investigation into fill factor and open-circuit voltage degradations in silicon heterojunction solar cells under accelerated life testing at elevated temperatures,” Gbenga D. Obikoya, Anishkumar Soman, Ujjwal K. Das, Steven S. Hegedus, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 263, 112586, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2023.112586, (2023).

2023

“Smart PV Inverter Cyberattack Detection Using Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Facility,” T. Kaewnukultorn, S. B. Sepulveda-mora, R. Broadwater, D. Zhu, N. G. Tsoutsos, and S. Hegedus, IEEE Access, 11, 90766, https://10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3308052, (2023).

2022

“Phase evolution and morphology in Cu-In-Ga sputtered precursors,” Isaac K. Lam, Kyeongchan Moon, Sina Soltanmohammad, Gregory M. Hanket, Woo Kyoung Kim, William N. Shafarman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 40, 033402, https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0001712, (2022).

2022

“Role of back-side indium tin oxide on the degradation mechanism of silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Gbenga D. Obikoya, A. Soman, U. K. Das and S. S. Hegedus, Proc. 49th IEEE PVSC, pp. 0570, https://10.1109/PVSC48317.2022.9938791, (2022).

2022

“Bulk lifetime study of p-type czochralski silicon with different processing history using quinhydrone-methanol surface passivation,” T. K. Mouri, A. Upadhyaya, A. Rohatgi, W. N. Shafarman and U. K. Das, Proc. 49th IEEE PVSC, 2022) pp. 0592. DOI:10.1109/PVSC48317.2022.9938829., (2022).

2022

“Stability of silicon heterojunction solar cells having hydrogen plasma treated intrinsic layer,” A. Soman, G. Obikoya, S. Johnston, S. Harvey, U. Das and S. Hegedus, Proc. 49th IEEE PVSC, 2022) pp. 0643. DOI:10.1109/PVSC48317.2022.9938700., (2022).

2022

“Two-step close-space vapor transport of MAPbI3 solar cells: Effects of electron transport layers and residual PbI2,” A. G. Kuba, A. J. Harding, R. J. Richardson, B. E. McCandless, U. K. Das, K. D. Dobson and W. N. Shafarman, ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 5, 10731, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.2c01468., (2022).

2022

“The Effect of Residual PbI2 on 2-Step Vapor-Processed p-i-n and n-i-p MAPbI3 Solar Cells,” Austin G Kuba, Alexander J Harding, Chaiwarut Santiwipharat, Ujjwal K Das, Kevin Dobson, William Shafarman, Proc. IEEE 49th Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC48317.2022.9938959, (2022).

2022

“Predicting solar cell recombination from C-V-f fingerprints using machine learning,” Isaac K. Lam; Austin G. Kuba; Nathan J. Rollins; William N. Shafarman, Proc. IEEE 49th Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC48317.2022.9938563, (2022).

2022

“Fill Factor Loss in Perovskite Solar Cells Using Fullerene ETLs Caused by Air Exposure,” Austin G Kuba; Alexander J Harding; Raphael Richardson; Ujjwal K Das; Kevin Dobson, William Shafarman, Proc. IEEE 49th Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC48317.2022.9938847, (2022).

2022

“Bulk lifetime study of p-type Czochralski silicon with different processing history using quinhydrone-methanol surface passivation,” Tasnim K. Mouri; Ajay Upadhyaya; Ajeet Rohatgi; William N Shafarman; Ujjwal Das, Proc. IEEE 49th Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC48317.2022.9938829, (2022).

2022

“Bandgap Dependence of Near-Conduction Band State in AgyCu1_y)(InXGa1_x)Se2 Solar Cells,,” Michael F. Miller, Alexandra M. Bothwell, Nicholas Valdes, Stefan Paetel, Rouin Farshchi, Ana Kanevce, William Shafarman, Darius Kuciauskas, Aaron R. Arehart, Proc. IEEE 49th Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, 1315-1318, https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC48317.2022.9938776, (2022).

2022

“In2Se3, In2Te3, and In2(Se,Te)3 Alloys as Photovoltaic Materials,” Wei Li, Xue-Fen Cai, Nicholas Valdes, Tianshi Wang, William Shafarman, Su-Huai Wei, Anderson Janotti, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 13, 12026_12031, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.2c02975, (2022).

2021

“Making the Case for Time-of-Use Electric Rates to Boost the Value of Battery Storage in Commercial Buildings with Grid Connected PV Systems,,” Sep?lveda-Mora, S. B. & Hegedus, S., Energy, 218, 119447., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.119447, (2021).

2021

“The Role of Oxygen Exposure on the Performance of All-Vapor-Processed Perovskite Solar Cells with CuPC Hole Transport Layers,” A. Kuba, Bin Du, Alex Harding, Kevin Dobson, Brian McCandless, Ujjwal Das, William Shafarman, Proc. IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1451-1454,, doi: 10.1109/PVSC43889.2021.9518616, (2021).

2021

“Towards Perovskite Vapor Transport Deposition: PbI2 Deposition and Modeling in a Close Space Vapor Transport Configuration,” A. J. Harding, A. G. Kuba, K. D. Dobson, U. K. Das, B. A. Ogunnaike and W. N. Shafarman, Proc. IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 982-985,, doi: 10.1109/PVSC43889.2021.9519001, (2021).

2021

“Distinguishing bulk and surface recombination in CdTe thin films and solar cells using time-resolved terahertz and photoluminescence spectroscopies,” Mohammad M. Taheri, Triet M. Truong, Siming Li, William N. Shafarman, Brian E. McCandless, Jason B. Baxter, J. Applied Physics 130, 163104, doi: 10.1063/5.0064730, (2021).

2021

“Dopant diffused Si surface passivation by H2S gas reaction and quinhydrone-methanol treatment,” U. K. Das, T. K. Mouri, R. Theisen, Y. W. Ok, A. Upadhyaya and A. Rohatgi, Proc. 48th IEEE PVSC,, pp. 1355. DOI:10.1109/PVSC43889.2021., (2021).

2021

“Effects of composition and thermal treatment on VOC-limiting defects in single-crystalline Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells,” Michael A. Lloyd, Xiangyu Ma, Austin G. Kuba, Brian E. McCandless, Matthew F. Doty, Robert Birkmire, Prog. Photovolt., https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.3516, (2021).

2021

“Efficient passivation of n-type and p-type silicon surface defects by hydrogen sulfide gas reaction,” U. K. Das, R. Theisen, A. Hua, A. Upadhyaya, I. Lam, T. K. Mouri, N. Jiang, D. Hauschild, L. Weinhardt, W. Yang, A. Rohatgi and C. Heske, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 33, 464002, https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac1ec8., (2021).

2021

“Quantifying Bulk and Surface Recombination in CdTe Solar Cells Using Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy,” Mohammad M. Taheri, Triet M. Truong, Shannon Fields, William N. Shafarman, Brian E. McCandless, Jason B. Baxter, Proc. 48th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 648-651, doi.org/10.1109/PVSC43889.2021.9518559, (2021).

2021

“Role of Cation Ordering on Device Performance in,” Ag,Cu)InSe2 Solar Cells with KF Post-Deposition Treatment” Tara Nietzold, Nicholas H. Valdes, Michael Stuckelberger, Michelle Chiu, Trumann Walker, April Jeffries, Archana Sinha, Laura Schelhas, Barry Lai, William Shafarman, Mariana Bertoni, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 4, 233-241, doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.0c02197, (2021).

2021

“Substrate-Dependent Effects on the Growth of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites via Close Space Vapor Transport,” A. G. Kuba, A. Harding, B. McCandless, K. D. Dobson, U. Das, B. A. Ogunnaike, W. Shafarman, Conf. Rec. 47th IEEE PVSC, DOI:10.1109/PVSC45281.2020.9300509, (2021).

2021

“The Role of Oxygen Exposure on the Performance of All-Vapor-Processed Perovskite Solar Cells with CuPC Hole Transport Layers,” A. G. Kuba, B. Du, A. Harding, K. D. Dobson, B. McCandless, U. Das, W. Shafarman, Conf. Rec. 47th IEEE PVSC, DOI:10.1109/PVSC43889.2021.9518616, (2021).

2021

“Thermal and Structural Characterization of Methylammonium- and Formamidinium-Halide Salts,” Alexander J. Harding, Kevin D. Dobson, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, William N. Shafarman, Phys. Status Solidi A, 2100246, doi: 10.1002/pssa.202100246, (2021).

2021

“Towards perovskite vapor transport deposition: PbI2 deposition and modeling in a close space vapor transport configuration,” A. J. Harding A. G. Kuba, K. D. Dobson, U. K. Das, B. A. Ogunnaike and W. N. Shafarman, Proc. 48th IEEE PVSC, pp. 0982. DOI:10.1109/PVSC43889.2021, (2021).

2021

“Resilience and Environmental Analysis of a Microgrid for a Commercial Building,,” Sep?lveda-Mora, S. B. & Hegedus, S., Aibi Revista de Investigaci?n, Administraci?n e Ingenier?a, 9 (1), 8?18, https://doi.org/10.15649/2346030x.919, (2021).

2021

“Understanding the role of hydrogen plasma treatment and thermal annealing in improving the a-Si:H/ c-Si interface passivation,” Soman, A.; Silva-Quinones, D.; Hegedus, S.; Teplyakov, A.; Das, U., MRS Fall, December 2021, Boston, USA (Control ID: 3615871), (2021).

2020

“Admittance Spectroscopy on Single-Crystal Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells: Back-Contact Effects and Metastabilities,” Michael A. Lloyd*, Austin Kuba, Brian E. McCandless and Robert Birkmire, J. Appl. Phys. 128, 143102, DOI: 10.1063/5.0020421, (2020).

2020

“Composition Control of High Ga Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Using RTP Reaction Isaac K. Lam, Gregory M. Hanket, William N. Shafarman,” Isaac K. Lam, Gregory M. Hanket, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 807-809, doi.org/10.1109/PVSC45281.2020.9300375, (2020).

2020

“Effects of Cation Composition on Carrier Dynamics and Photovoltaic Performance in Cu2ZnSnSe4 Monocrystal Solar Cells,” Siming Li, Michael Lloyd, Brian McCandless, Jason Baxter, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 205, 1102550927, DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2019.110255, (2020).

2020

“Electroluminescence characterization of recombination in back junction silicon heterojunction test structures: Role of the inversion layer,” N. Ahmed, L. Zhang, U. Das and S. Hegedus, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 10, 634, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2020.2967035, (2020).

2020

“Exploring In2(Se1_xTex)3 alloys as photovoltaic materials,” Wei Li, Xuefen Cai, Nicholas Valdes, Tianshi Wang, William Shafarman, Su-Huai Wei, Anderson Janotti, arXiv:2009.12885,, (2020).

2020

“Fabrication and Characteristics of High-VOC Single Crystalline Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells,” Michael A. Lloyd, Brian McCandless,and Robert Birkmire, Prog. Photovolt, DOI:10.1002/pip.3273, (2020).

2020

“Formation of Ag(Ga,In)Se2 During Selenization Of Ag-Ga/In Precursor,” Ho Ming Tong, Sina Soltanmohammad, William N. Shafarman, Timothy J. Anderson, Proc. 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 765-1772, doi.org/10.1109/PVSC45281.2020.9300659, (2020).

2020

“Interdigitated back contact (IBC) heterojunction (HJ) silicon solar cell fabrication by laser patterning,” A. Sinha, A. Soman, U. Das, S. Hegedus and M. C. Gupta, Proc. 47th IEEE PVSC, pp. 0502., (2020).

2020

“Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Patterning of Interdigitated Back Contact Heterojunction Silicon Solar Cells,” Arpan Sinha; Anishkumar Soman; Ujjwal Das; Steven Hegedus; Mool C. Gupta, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, (Volume: 10, Issue: 6, Nov. 2020) pp. 1648 ? 1656 DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2020.3026907, (2020).

2020

“Policy and regulations for designing a Community Solar Market in Delaware,” Joseph Nyangon, Pengyu Li, Karice Redhead and Nick DiNardo, Steven Hegedus, Job Taminiau, John Byrne, Technical Report Prepared for the DE General Assembly, (2020).

2020

“Precursor reaction method with high Ga Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 to achieve increased open-circuit voltage,” Isaac K. Lam, Gregory M. Hanket, William N. Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 10, 1185-1190, doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2020.2984017, (2020).

2020

“Substrate Dependent Effects on the Growth of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites Via Close Space Vapor Transport,” Austin G. Kuba, Alexander J. Harding, Brian E. McCandless, Kevin D. Dobson, Ujjwal K. Das, Bababtunde A. Ogunnaike, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1203-1206, doi: 10.1109/PVSC45281.2020.9300509, (2020).

2020

“Sulfurization as a promising surface passivation approach for both n- and p-type Si,” U. Das, R. Theisen, G. Hanket, A. Upadhyaya, A. Rohatgi, A. Hua, L. Weinhardt, D. Hauschild and C. Heske, Proc. 47th IEEE PVSC,, pp. 1167., (2020).

2020

“The Growth of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites by Close Space Vapor Transport,” Alexander J. Harding, Austin G. Kuba, Brian E. McCandless, Ujjwal K. Das, Kevin D. Dobson, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, William N. Shafarman, RSC Advances 10, 16125, doi.org/10.1039/D0RA01640C, (2020).

2010-2020 ARCHIVE
2010-2019 ARCHIVE
2019

“Electroluminescence Characterization of Recombination in Back Junction Silicon Heterojunction Test Structures: Role of Inversion Layers,” N. Ahmed, L. Zhang, U. Das, Steven S. Hegedus, Accepted for publication by IEEE J. Photovoltaics,, (2019).

2019

“Ag Alloying and KF Treatment Effects on Low Bandgap CuInSe2 Solar Cells,” Nicholas Valdes, JinWoo Lee, William Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 9, 906-911, Nov, doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2899962, (2019).

2019

“a-Si:H/c-Si interface hydrogenation for implied Voc = 755 mV in Silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Anishkumar Soman, Ugochukwu Nsofor, Ujjwal Das, Tingyi Gu, Steve Hegedus, Proc. 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference Chicago June 2019, (2019).

2019

“Comparison of Ag and Ga alloying in low bandgap CuInSe2-based solar cells,” Nicholas Valdes, JinWoo Lee, William Shafarman, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 195, 155-159, doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2019.02.022, (2019).

2019

“Correlation between in Situ Diagnostics of the Hydrogen Plasma and the Interface Passivation Quality of Hydrogen Plasma Post- Treated aSi:H in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Anishkumar Soman, Ugochukwu Nsofor, Ujjwal Das, Tingyi Gu, and Steven Hegedus, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 11, 16181_16190 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b01686, (2019).

2019

“Direct Laser Patterned Electroplated Copper Contacts for Interdigitated Back Contact Silicon Solar Cells,” Kevin D. Dobson, Zeming Sun, Ugochukwu Nsofor, Ujjwal Das, Arpan Sinha, Mool Gupta and Steven S. Hegedus, Proc. 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference Chicago June 2019, (2019).

2019

“Enhanced p-type Doping in Polycrystalline CdTe Films,” Brian McCandless, Wayne Buchanan, Gowri Sriramagiri, Christopher Thompson, Joel Duenow, David Albin, Soren Jensen, John Moseley, M. Al-Jassim, Wyatt K. Metzger, J. Photovolt. 9(3) 912-917, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2902356, (2019).

2019

“Feasibility and Design of Very Low Emission Smart Microgrids in DE: Sizing, Location, Cost, and Barriers,” Dr. Steven Hegedus, Technical report submitted to DE Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (DNREC) Agency, Apr, (2019).

2019

“Feasibility Study of City-Scale Solar Power Plants Using Public Buildings: Case Studies of Newark and Wilmington Delaware with Early Investigations of Bifacial Solar Modules and Dual Orientation Racking as Tools for City-Scale Solar Development.,” Byrne, J., Nyangon, J., Hegedus, S., Chajes, M., Taminiau, J., Ahmed, N., Dinardo, N., Li, P., and Xu, J., Technical report prepared for the Delaware General Assembly, June 2019. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22115.40489/3, (2019).

2019

“Influence of Ga on the KF Treatment Chemistry for CIGS Solar Cells,” Nicholas Valdes, Kevin Jones, Robert Opila, William Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 9, 1846-1851,, doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2930210, (2019).

2019

“Majority Carrier Properties of Single Crystal Cu2-xZnSnSe4 with Varying Copper Composition,” Brian McCandless, Doug Bishop, Michael Lloyd, Phys. Status Solidi B, 1900180 (1-7), 2019) http://doi.org/10.1002/pssb.201900180, (2019).

2019

“Nano- and Micro-scale Defect Analysis in CuInSe2 Solar Cells with Ag and K Incorporation,” Tara Nietzold, Michael Stueckelberger, Trumann Walker, Nicholas Valdes, Bradley M. West, Barry Lai, William N. Shafarman, Mariana I. Bertoni, Proc. 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Chicago), 2164-66, doi.org/10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8980709 207., (2019).

2019

“Investigation of the Electrical Properties of Grain Boundaries in (AgxCu1-x)(InyGa1-y)Se2,” Jake W Wands, Angus A Rockett, Sina Soltanmohammad, William Shafarman, Proc. 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Chicago), 962-64, doi.org/10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8981173, (2019).

2019

“Nano-folded Gold Catalysts for Electroreduction of Carbon Dioxide,” K. S. Kwok, Y. Wang, M. C. Cao, H. Shen, Z. He, G. Poirier, B. McCandless, K. J. T. Livi, D. A Muller, C. Wang, D. H. Gracias, Nano Letters, DOI:10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b04564, (2019).

2019

“Oxidative segregation of Group V dopants in CdTe solar cells,” Craig L. Perkins, Brian McCandless, Deborah L. McGott, Matthew O. Reese, Wyatt Metzger, Conf Rec. 46th IEEE PVSC, DOI:10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8981317, (2019).

2019

“Precursor reaction with high Ga to achieve increased Cu(In,Ga)(S, Se)2 open-circuit voltage,” Isaac K. Lam, Gregory M. Hanket, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Chicago), 3206-10, doi.org/10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8981141, (2019).

2019

“Reaction Rate Enhancement for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Absorber Materials using Ag-alloying,” Sina Soltanmohammad, Ho Ming Tong, Timothy J. Anderson, William N. Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 9, 898-905, doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2897582, (2019).

2019

“Relating Carrier Dynamics and Photovoltaic Device Performance of a Cu2ZnSnSe4 Single Crystal,” Siming Li, Michael A. Lloyd, Hannes Hempel, Charles J. Hages, Jos? M?rquez, Thomas Unold, Rainer Eichberger, Brian E. McCandless, Jason B. Baxter, Phys. Rev.: B 11, 034005, DOI: doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.034005, (2019).

2019

“Study of wavelength-resolved light-induced metastable defects in (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 thin-films using capacitance methods,” Abhinav Chikhalkar, Michael Goryll, William Shafarman, Richard King, Proc. 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (Chicago), 2150-54, doi.org/10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8980883, (2019).

2019

“Voltage-Induced Charge Redistribution in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Devices Studied With High-Speed Capacitance-Voltage Profiling,” Jeff Bailey, Dmitry Poplavskyy, Geordie Zapalac, Lorelle Mansfield, William Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. 9, 319-324, doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2018.2882204, (2019).

2019

“Computation and Assessment of Solar Electrolyzer Field Performance: Comparing Coupling Strategies,” G. M Sriramagiri, W. Luc, N. Ahmed, K. D. Dobson, K. Ayers, S. S. Hegedus, and F. Jiao, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2 422-430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C8SE00399H, (2019).

2018

“Electroluminescence Analysis for Separation of Series Resistance From Recombination Effects in Silicon Solar Cells with Interdigitated Back Contact Design,” Nuha Ahmed, Lei Zhang, Ujjwal Das and Steven Hegedus, Proc. 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Washington DC, (2018).

2018

“Analysis of silicon wafer surface preparation for heterojunction solar cells using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and effective minority carrier lifetime,” Ugochukwu Nsofor, Lei Zhang, Anishkumar Soman, Christopher Goodwin, H. Liu, Kevin Dobson, Ujjwal Das and Steven Hegedus, Solar Energy Mat. Solar Cell, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2018.03.006, (2018).

2018

“Surface Defect Passivation and Reaction of c_Si in H2S,” Hsiang-Yu Liu, Ujjwal K. Das and Robert W. Birkmire, Langmuir 2017, 33, 14580_14585 pubs.acs.org/Langmuir, (2018).

2018

“Electroluminescence Analysis For Spatial Characterization of Parasitic Optical Losses in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Nuha Ahmed, Lei Zhang, Gowri Sriramagiri, Ujjwal Das, and Steven Hegedus, Journal of Applied Physics, (2018).

2018

“Ag Alloying and KF Treatment Effects on Low Bandgap CIGS Solar Cells =,” Nicholas Valdes, JinWoo Lee, and William Shafarman, Proc. 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (Waikoloa, HI),, doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547372, (2018).

2018

“Analysis of High-Voc Single-Crystal Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells via Admittance Spectroscopy,” Michael Lloyd, Brian E. McCandless, Robert W. Birkmire, Conf. Rec. IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), DOI:10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547303, (2018).

2018

“Analysis of silicon wafer surface preparation for heterojunction solar cells using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and effective minority carrier lifetime,” U. J. Nsofor, L. Zhang, A. Soman, C. M. Goodwin, H. Liu, K. D. Dobson, U. K. Das, T. P. Beebe Jr. and S. Hegedus, Solar Energy Mater. and Solar Cells 183, 205, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2018.03.006., (2018).

2018

“Characterization and Simulation of Electronic Effects of Front Bandgap Gradients in Selenized/Sulfized Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Solar Cells,” Christopher P. Thompson, Isaac Lam, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (Waikoloa, HI), doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547669, (2018).

2018

“Computation and assessment of solar electrolyzer field performance: comparing coupling strategies,” Gowri M. Sriramagiri, Wesley Luc, Feng Jiao, Kathy Ayers, Kevin D. Dobson and Steven S. Hegedus, Sustainable Energy and Fuels, DOI: 10.1039/c8se00399h, (2018).

2018

“Direct Laser Isolation For Interdigitated Back Contact Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Zeming Sun, Ugo Nsofor, Nuha Ahmed, Ujjwal K. Das, Steven Hegedus and Mool C. Gupta, Proc. 45th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conf. Waikoloa HI, June 2018., (2018).

2018

“Direct Observation of High Densities of Antisite Defects in Ag2ZnSnSe4,” David Cherns, Ian J. Griffiths, Lewys Jones, Douglas M. Bishop, Michael A. Lloyd, and Brian E. McCandless, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 2018); DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.8b01274, (2018).

2018

“Effect of dielectric layers on laser-fired-contact performance in a-Si/c-Si heterojunction Solar Cells,” Ujjwal Das, Christopher Thompson, Ugo Nsofor, Zeming Sun, Mool C. Gupta and Steven Hegedus, Proc. 45th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conf. Waikoloa HI, June 2018., (2018).

2018

“Electroluminescence Analysis for Spatial Characterization of Parasitic Optical Losses in Silicon Solar Cells,” Nuha Ahmed, Lei Zhang, Gowri Sriramagiri, Ujjwal Das, and Steven Hegedus, Journal of Applied Physics, Mar, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5007048, (2018).

2018

“Highly-integrated hybrid micro-concentrating photovoltaics,” L. Li, D. Li, B. Jared, B. Miller, W. Sweatt, S. Paap, M. Saavedra, C. Alford, J. Mudrick, M. Wood, U. Das, S. Hegedus, A. Tauke-Pedretti, J. Hu and T. Gu, Proc. of WCPEC-7, Waikola, HI, pp.1655, (2018).

2018

“Improving the Interface Passivation of Si HJ Solar Cells by Interrupted Deposition of Thin a-Si:H Film,” Ugo Nsofor, Anishkumar Soman, Ujjwal Das, Steve Hegedus, Proc. 45th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conf. Waikoloa HI, June 2018., (2018).

2018

“Overcoming Carrier Concentration Limits in Polycrystalline CdTe Thin Films with In-Situ Doping,” Brian E. McCandless, Wayne A. Buchanan, Christopher P. Thompson, Gowri Sriramagiri, Robert J. Lovelett, Joel Duenow, David Albin, S?ren Jensen, Eric Colegrove, John Moseley, Helio Moutinho, Steve Harvey, Mowafak Al-Jassim, Wyatt K. Metzger, Nature: Scientific Reports, 8:14519, http://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32746-y, (2018).

2018

“Reaction Pathway Analysis of (AgxCu1-x)(In0.75Ga0.25)Se2 with x = 0.75 and 1.0,” Sina Soltanmohammad and William N. Shafarman, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 182, 142-57, doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2017.12.023., (2018).

2018

“Si surface passivation by sulfur and reduction of interface defect recombination,” U. Das, S. Jafari, L. Zhang, H. Liu, R. Birkmire and S. Hegedus, Proc. of WCPEC-7, Waikola, HI, pp.3076, (2018).

2018

“Study of passivation in the gap region between contacts of interdigitated-back-contact Silicon heterojunction solar cell: simulation and voltage-modulated laser-beam-induced-current,” L. Zhang, N. Ahmed, C. Thompson, U. Das and S. Hegedus, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 8, 404, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2017.2783852., (2018).

2018

“Urban solar rooftop potential: Technical and economic analysis for rooftop solar generation in Wilmington and Newark Delaware,” Soojin Shin, Nuha Ahmed, Nick Dinardo, Jing Xu, Dr. Steven Hegedus, Dr. Michael Chajes Dr. Job Taminiau, Dr. John Byrne, Technical report prepared for the Delaware General Assembly May 2018, (2018).

2018

“Wafer Integrated Micro-Scale Concentrating Photovoltaics,” Duanhui Li, Lan Li, Bradley Jared, Gordon Keeler, Bill Miller, Michael Wood, Christopher Hains, William Sweatt, Scott Paap, Michael Saavedra, Charles Alford, John Mudrick, Ujjwal Das, Steve Hegedus, Anna Tauke-Pedretti, Juejun Hu, Tian Gu, Progress in Photovoltaics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pip.3034, (2018).

2018

“Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Devices: The Promise of Solution Processed Fe2GeS4 Thin Films,” M. Liu, D. M. Berg, P.-Y. Hwang, C.-Y. Lai, F. Babbe, P. J. Dale, K. D. Dobson and D. Radu, J. Mat Sci. 53, 7725-7734. DOI: 10.1007/s10853-018-2082-1, (2018).

2018

“Analysis of Silicon Wafer Surface Preparation for Heterojunction Solar Cells Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Effective Minority Carrier Lifetime,” U. J. Nsofor, L. Zhang, A. Soman, C. M. Goodwin, H. Liu, K. D. Dobson, U. K. Das, T. P. Beebe Jr. and S. Hegedus, Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells, 183, 205-210. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2018.03.006, (2018).

2017

“Ag?Cu?In?Ga Metal Precursor Thin Films for (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells Sina Soltanmohammad,,” Lei Chen, Brian McCandless and William N. Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 7, 273-280, doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2016.2615682, (2017).

2017

“Comparison of CIGS Solar Cells Made With Different Structures and Fabrication Techniques,” Lorelle M. Mansfield, Rebekah L. Garris, Kahl D. Counts, James R. Sites, Christopher P. Thompson, William N. Shafarman and Kannan Ramanathan, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. 7, 286-293, doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2016.2616188, (2017).

2017

“Grain engineering: How nanoscale inhomogeneities can control charge collection in solar cells,” Bradley M. West, Michael Stuckelberger , Harvey Guthrey, Lei Chen, Barry Lai, Jörg Maser, Volker Rose, William Shafarman, Mowafak Al-Jassim, Mariana I. Bertoni, Nano Energy 32 488?493, doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.12.011, (2017).

2017

“Secondary Phase Formation in (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films Grown by Three-stage Coevaporation,” Lei Chen, Sina Soltanmohammad, JinWoo Lee, Brian E. McCandless, William N. Shafarman, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 166, 18-26,, doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2017.03.001, (2017).

2017

“A quaternary Laves-type phase in Ag-Cu-In-Ga thin films,” Sina Soltanmohammad, Brian McCandless, William N. Shafarman, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 710 819-824, doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.03.228, (2017).

2017

“Modification of defects and potential fluctuations in slow-cooled and quenched Cu2ZnSnSe4 single crystals,” Douglas M. Bishop, Brian McCandless, Talia Gershon, Michael A. Lloyd, ,Richard Haight, Robert Birkmire, Journal of Applied Physics 121, 065704, (2017).

2017

“Hydrogen Plasma Post-Deposition Treatment for Passivation of a-Si/c-Si Interface for Heterojunction Solar Cell by Correlating Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Minority Carrier Lifetime A,” nishkumar Soman, Ugochukwu Nsofor, Lei Zhang, Ujjwal Das and Steven Hegedus, Proc. 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Washington, DC, (2017).

2017

“Raman spectroscopy study of Hydrogen Plasma Treatment effect on a sinle layer Graphene/MoS2 hybrid structure,” Anishkumar Soman, Jianping Shi, Ugochukwu Nsofor, Steven Hegedus, Yanfeng Zhang, Robert A. Burke and Tingyi Gu, Frontiers in Optics Conference Washington, DC, (2017).

2016

“A stochastic model of solid state thin film deposition: application to chalcopyrite growth,” Robert J. Lovelett, Xueqi Pang, Tyler M. Roberts, William N. Shafarman, Robert W. Birkmire, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, AIP Advances 6, 045015, doi.org/10.1063/1.4948404, (2016).

2016

“Development of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 superstrate devices with alternative buffer layers,” Peipei Xin, Jes K. Larsen, Fei Deng, William N. Shafarman, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 157, 85?92, doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2016.05.018, (2016).

2016

“Reaction Pathway Analysis of Ag-Alloyed Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Absorber Materials,” Sina Soltanmohammad, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Portland, OR, 2269-73., doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750040, (2016).

2016

“Synchrotron x-ray characterization of alkali elements at grain boundaries in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Bradley West, Michael Stuckelberger, Harvey Guthrey, Lei Chen, Barry Lai, Jorg Maser, Volker Rose, James J. Dynes, William Shafarman, Mowafak Al-Jassim, Mariana Bertoni, Proc. 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Portland, OR, 31-34. doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2016.7749403, (2016).

2016

“Precursor Reaction Growth of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Films: Unravelling the Mysteries by In-situ X-ray Imaging,” Bradley West, Michael Stuckelberger, Robert Lovelett, Barry Lai, Jorg Maser, William Shafarman, Mariana I. Bertoni, Proc. 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Portland, OR, 530-33., doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2016.7749650, (2016).

2016

“Effect of Reaction Temperature and Time during Two-Step Selenization and Sulfurization of Se-Coated CuGa/In Precursors,” Jaseok Koo, Sunmo Kwon, Yong-Suk Roh, Seok-Jin Lee, Ki-Young Jung, William N. Shafarman, Ji-Hyeon Park, Do Hoon Kim, Jae-Min Myoung, Woo Kyoung Kim, Electronic Materials Letters 12, 484-493, doi.org/10.1007/s13391-016-4011-2, (2016).

2016

“Design and experimental implementation of an effective control system for thin film Cu(InGa)Se2 production via rapid thermal processing,” Robert J. Lovelett, Gregory M. Hanket, William N. Shafarman, Robert W. Birkmire, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, Journal of Process Control 46 24-33, doi.org/10.1016/j.jprocont.2016.07.005, (2016).

2016

“Alternative device structures for CIGS-based solar cells with semi-transparent absorbers,” Kihwan Kim, William N. Shafarman, NanoEnergy 30, 488-493, doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.10.038, (2016).

2015

“Controlled bandgap CuIn_xGax(S0.1Se0.9)2 (0.10 ? x ? 0.72) solar cells from electrodeposited precursors,” Jo?o C. Malaquias, Dominik M. Berg, Jan Sendler, Marc Steichen, Nathalie Valle, Phillip J. Dale, J.C. Malaquias, et al., Thin Solid Films 582, 2-6, DOI 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.10.068, (2015).

2015

“Transparent Back Contacts for Superstrate (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells,” Hamed Simchi, Jes Larsen, and William Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 5, 406-409, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2365469., (2015).

2015

“Laser Fired Contact for n-Type Crystalline Si Solar Cells,” He, Jianbo; Hegedus, Steven, Das, Ujjwal K., Shu, Zhan, Bennett, Murray, Zhang, Lei, Birkmire, Robert, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 23 pp 1091-1099, (2015).

2015

“Reversibility of (Ag,Cu) (In,Ga)Se2 electrical properties with the addition and removal of Na: Role of grain boundaries,” Robert Forest, Erten Eser, Brian McCandless, Jingguang Chen and Robert Birkmire, Journal of Applied Physics 117, 115102, DOI: 10.1063/1.4915334, (2015).

2015

“Composition and bandgap control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based absorbers formed by reaction of metal precursors,” Kihwan Kim, Hyeonwook Park, Gregory Hanket, Woo Kyoung Kim and William Shafarman, Progress in Photovoltaics, 23, 765?772, DOI: 10.1002/pip.2494., (2015).

2015

“Fabrication and Electronic Properties of CZTSe Single Crystals,” Douglas M. Bishop, Brian E. McCandless, Richard Haight, David B. Mitzi, Robert W. Birkmire, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 5 390-394., DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2363552, (2015).

2015

“Na incorporation in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 films grown on insulator-coated stainless steel foil using a metal precursor reaction,” Kihwan Kim, Erten Eser and William N. Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 5, 1222?1228, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2015.2435366, (2015).

2015

“Bandgap gradients in (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells deposited by three-stage co-evaporation,” Christopher P. Thompson, Lei Chen, William N. Shafarman, Jinwoo Lee, Shannon Fields, Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. New Orleans, (2015).

2015

“The Role of the Intrinsic Zinc Oxide Layers on the Performance of Wide-bandgap (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells,” Uwadiae Obahiagbon, Christopher P. Thompson, William N. Shafarman, Steve S. Hegedus, Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. New Orleans, (2015).

2015

“A Stochastic Model for Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Absorber Growth During Selenization/Sulfization,” Robert J. Lovelett, William N. Shafarman, Robert W. Birkmire and Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. New Orleans, (2015).

2015

“VOC Enhancement of Sub-micron CIGS Solar Cells by Sulfization of the Mo Surface,” Kihwan Kim, Peipei Xin, Jaeho Yun and William N. Shafarman, Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. New Orleans, (2015).

2015

“Experimental and simulated analysis of p a-Si:H defects on silicon heterojunction solar cells: trade-offs between VOC and FF,” L. Zhang, U. K. Das, Z. Shu, H. Liu, R. W. Birkmire and S. S. Hegedus, Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. New Orleans, (2015).

2015

“Characterization and numerical modeling of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells,” Christopher P. Thompson, Dongho Lee, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. New Orleans, (2015).

2015

“A Stochastic Model for Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Absorber Growth During Selenization/Sulfization,” Robert J. Lovelett, William N. Shafarmany, Robert W. Birkmire, and Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, Proc. 42nd IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. New Orleans, (2015).

2015

“Transparent Back Contacts for Superstrate (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells,” Hamed Simchi, Jes Larsen, and William Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 5, 406-409, doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2365469, (2015).

2015

“Composition and bandgap control in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based absorbers formed by reaction of metal precursors,” Kihwan Kim, Hyeonwook Park, Gregory Hanket, Woo Kyoung Kim and William Shafarman, Progress in Photovoltaics, 23, 765?772, doi.org/10.1002/pip.2494., (2015).

2014

“Understanding the Effect of Na in Improving the Performance of Cu(InGa)Se2-Based Photovoltaics,” Robert V. Forest, Kunhee Han, Erten Eser, Jingguang G. Chen, Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 39th IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 4, 948,, (2014).

2014

“Light Trapping in Thin Film Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells,” James G. Mutitu, Uwadiae Obahiagbon, Shouyuan Shi, William Shafarman and Dennis W. Prather, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 4, 948-53,, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2307487, (2014).

2014

“Structure and interface chemistry of MoO3 back contacts in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells,” Hamed Simchi, Brian E. McCandless, T. Meng and William N. Shafarman, Journal of Applied Physics 115, 033514, DOI: 10.1063/1.4862404, (2014).

2014

“Backwall superstrate configuration for ultrathin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” J. K. Larsen, H. Simchi, P. Xin, K. Kim and W. N. Shafarman, Applied Physics Letters 104, 033901, DOI: 10.1063/1.4862651, (2014).

2014

“Structural, optical, and surface properties of WO3 thin films for solar cells,” H. Simchi, B.E. McCandless, T. Meng, W.N. Shafarman, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 617, 609?615, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.08.047, (2014).

2014

“Understanding the role of oxygen in the segregation of sodium surface of molybdenum coated soda-lime glass,” Robert V. Forest, Erten Eser, Brian E. McCandless, Robert W. Birkmire, Jingguang G. Chen, AICHE Journal, June, 60 (6) 2365-2372. DOI: 10.1002/aic. 14425, (2014).

2014

“Microstructure and phase evolution in single phase in CuInSe2 particles using elemental precursors,” Emre Yassitepe, William N. Shafarman and S. Ismat Shah, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 23, 198-203, DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2014.02.023, (2014).

2014

“The role of back contact patterning on stability and performance of Si IBC heterojunction solar cells,” U. Das, H-Y Liu, J. He, S. Hegedus, Proc. 40th IEEE PVSC, Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference; Denver, CO; June 8-13, (2014).

2014

“Laser fired contacts for n-type c-Si solar cells,” J. He, S. Hegedus, U. Das, Z. Shan, M. Bennett, L. Zhang, R. Birkmire, Progress in Photovoltaics, published online: 17 June 2014 DOI: 10.1002/pip.2520., (2014).

2014

“H2S reaction of Se-capped metallic precursors to form Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorber layers D,” Dominik M. Berg, Frank Cheng, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 323-27, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6924923, (2014).

2014

“Characterization of Group I-rich Growth During (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 Three-stage Co-evaporation,” Lei Chen, JinWoo Lee, Brian E. McCandless, Sina S. Soltanmohammad, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 332-36, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6924925, (2014).

2014

“Sputtered Zinc Selenide Buffer Layers for Cu(InGa)Se2 Substrate and Superstrate Solar Cells,” Peipei Xin, Christopher P. Thompson, Jes K. Larsen and William N. Shafarman, Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 443-447, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6924954, (2014).

2014

“Electrical and compositional characterization of gallium grading in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells,” Bradley West, Harvey Guthrey, Lei Chen, April Jeffries, Simone Bernardini, Barry Lai, Jörg Maser, William Shafarman, Mowafak Al-Jassim, Mariana Bertoni, Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1726-28, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925254, (2014).

2014

“CdTe Solar Cells with a PCBM Back Contact,” Curtis Walkons, Brett Guralnick, Brian McCandless and Robert Birkmire, Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (2014).

2014

“Improved Performance of Ultrathin Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells With a Backwall Superstrate Configuration,” Hamed Simchi, Jes Larsen, Kihwan Kim and William Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 4, 1630-35,, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2345436, (2014).

2014

“Effect of sputtering sequence on the properties of Ag-Cu-In-Ga metal precursors and reacted (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 films,” Sina Soltanmohammad, Dominik M. Berg, Lei Chen, Kihwan Kim, Hamed Simchi, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1707-1711, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925250, (2014).

2014

“The Comparison of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films Deposited by Three-stage Co-evaporation,” Lei Chen, JinWoo Lee, and William N. Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 4, 447-51,, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2013.2280471, (2014).

2014

“The role of back contact patterning on stability and performance of Si BC heterojunction solar cells,” Ujjwal K. Das, Hsiang-Yu Liu, Jianbo He, and Steven Hegedus, Proc. 40th IEEE PVCS; Denver, CO; June 8-13, 2014., (2014).

2014

“Demonstration of High-Performance, Sub-Micron Chalcogenide Glass Photonic Devices by Thermal Nanoimprint,” Y. Zou, L. Moreel, J. Zhou, D. Zhang, H. Lin, Lan Li, Q. Du, J. Hu, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, K. D. Dobson and R. Birkmire, Proc. SPIE 8988, 898806, DOI: 10.1117/12.2040454., (2014).

2014

“High-Performance, High-Index-Contrast Chalcogenide Glass Photonics on Silicon and Unconventional Non-planar Substrates,” Y. Zou, D. Zhang, H. Lin, L. Li, L. Moreel, J. Zhou, Q. Du, O. Ogbuu, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, K. D. Dobson, R. Birkmire and J. Hu, Adv. Opt. Mater. 2 478-486, DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300489, (2014).

2014

“Solution Processing and Resist-Free Nanoimprint Fabrication of Thin Film Chalcogenide Glass Devices: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Photonic Integration,” Y. Zou, L. Moreel, H. Lin, J. Zhou, L. Li, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, E. Koontz, K. Richardson, K. D. Dobson, R. Birkmire and J. Hu, Adv. Opt. Mater. 2 759-764, DOI: 10.1002/adom.201300489, (2014).

2014

“Structural and optical properties of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 polycrystalline thin film alloys,” J. H. Boyle, B. E. McCandless, W. N. Shafarman and R. W. Birkmire, Journal of Applied Physics 115 , 223504, DOI: 10.1063/1.4880243, (2014).

2014

“Diffusion Mechanism of Na in Molybdenum Thin Films for Improving Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cell Efficiency,” Robert V. Forest, Brian E. McCandless, Robert W. Birkmire, Jingguang G. Chen, AIChE Annual Meeting (Atlanta), http://www3.aiche.org/proceedings/Abstract.aspx?PaperID=377524, (2014).

2013

“Electrophoretic Deposition of Aluminum Nitride from Its Suspension in Acetylacetone Using Iodine as an Additive,” Bizuneh Workie, Brian E. McCandless and Zewdu Gebeyehu, Hindawi Publishing Corp, Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2013, Article ID 489734,, (2013).

2013

“Sensitivity of surface passivation and interface quality in IBC-SHJ solar cells to patterning process,” Ujjwal Das, Jianbo He, Zhan Shu, Lulu Zhang, Chris Thompson, Robert Birkmire and Steven Hegedus, Proc., 39th IEEE PVSC, Tampa, FL, (2013).

2013

“Laser fired contact for n-type crystalline Si solar cell,” J. He, S. Hegedus, U. Das, Z. Shu, M. Bennett and R. Birkmire, Proc. 39th IEEE PVSC, Tampa, FL, (2013).

2013

“In-situ resistance measurement during the growth of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films by multi-source evaporation,” JinWoo Lee, Lei Chen, Uwa Obahiagbon, Chris Thompson, William N. Shafarman and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 39th IEEE PVSC, Tampa FL, June 17-21, 2013., (2013).

2013

“Experimental and simulated analysis of front versus all-back-contact silicon heterojunction solar cells: effect of interface and doped a-Si:H layer defects,” Zhan Shu, Ujjwal Das, John Allen, Robert Birkmire and Steven Hegedus, Progress In Photovoltaics: Research And Applications, Published online in Wiley Online Library, wileyonlinelibrary.com, DOI: 10.1002/pip.2400., (2013).

2013

“Effect of RF or VHF Plasma on Nanocrystalline Silicon Thin Film Structure: Insight from OES and Langmuir Probe Measurements,” Lala Zhu, Ujjwal K. Das, Steven S. Hegedus, Robert W. Birkmire, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1538, 3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/opl.2013.924, (2013).

2013

“Optimizing emitter-buffer layer stack thickness for p-type silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Zeynep Deniz Eygi, Ujjwal Das, Steven Hegedus, and Robert Birkmire, J. Renewable Sustainable Energy, 5, 013117, DOI: 10.1063/1.4792510: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4792510, (2013).

2013

“Temperature Sensing and Control in a Rapid Thermal Processing Reactor to Produce CuInGaSe2 Absorber Layers,” Robert J. Lovelett, Robert W. Birkmire, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, AIChE Annual meeting in Atlanta, URL http://www3.aiche.org/proceedings/Abstract.aspx?PaperID=331025, (2013).

2013

“Effects of Growth Conditions on Secondary Phases in CZTSe Thin Films Deposited by Co-evaporation,,” Douglas M. Bishop, Brian E. McCandless, Thomas C. Mangan, Kevin Dobson, Robert Birkmire, MRS Online Proceeding Library, 01/2013; 1538:75-82. DOI:10.1557/opl.2013.1005, (2013).

2012

“Effect of surface carbon on the hydrogen evolution reactivity of tungsten carbide (WC) and Pt-modified WC electrocatalysts,” Yannick C. Kimmel, Daniel V. Esposito, Robert W. Birkmire, Jingguang G. Chen, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, in-press, (2012).

2012

“Electron drift-mobility measurements in polycrystalline CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells,” S. A. Dinca, E. A. Schiff, W. N. Shafarman, B. Egaas, R. Noufi, and D. L. Young, Applied Phys Letters, 100, 103901, (2012).

2012

“Three-step H2Se/Ar/H2S reaction of Cu-In-Ga precursors for controlled composition and adhesion of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 thin films,” Kihwan Kim, Gregory M. Hanket, Trang Huynh, William N.Shafarman, J. Applied Phys, 111, 083710, (2012).

2012

“Photoelectrochemical reforming of glucose for hydrogen production using a WO3-based tandem cell device,” Daniel V. Esposito, Robert V. Forest, Yuancheng Chang, Nicolas Gaillard, Brian E. McCandless, Shuyu Hou, Kelvin H. Lee, Robert W. Birkmire, Jingguang G. Chen, Energy Environ. Sci., 5, 9091-9099, (2012).

2012

“Impact of back surface patterning process on FF in IBC-SHJ solar cell,” Lulu Zhang, Brent Shu, Robert Birkmire, Steve Hegedus, Ujjwal Das, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“Design of anti-reflection coating for surface textured interdigitated back contact silicon hetero-junction solar cell,” Brent Shu, Ujjwal Das, Lei Chen, Lulu Zhang, Steven Hegedus, Robert Birkmire, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“Characterization and modeling of low temperature surface passivation for interdigitated back contact silicon hetero-junction solar cell,” Brent Shu, Ujjwal Das, Steven Hegedus, Robert Birkmire, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“Laser textured heterojunction solar cells on 45 um thick Si wafers: effect of optical configuration and light trapping,” Steven Hegedus, Ujjwal Das1, Chris Vineis2, Moran Levy-Finklshtein , Jason Sickler, Jim Carey, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“The effects of device geometry and TCO/buffer layers on damp heat accelerated lifetime testing of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Chris Thompson, Steve Hegedus, Peter Carcia, R. Scott McLean, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“Effect of annealing atmosphere and temperature on the properties of Cd2SnO4 thin films,” Tiejun Meng, Brian E. McCandless, Wayne A. Buchanan, Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“Control of Ga profiles in (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers deposited on polyimide substrates,” Gregory M. Hanket, Christopher P. Thompson, Erten Eser, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“Three-step H2Se/Ar/H2S reaction of metal precursors for large area Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 with uniform Ga distribution,” Kihwan Kim, Evan L. Kimberly, Andrew Damiani, Gregory M. Hanket, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“High efficiency ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 solar cells by three-step H2Se/Ar/H2S reaction of Cu-In-Ga metal precursor,” Kihwan Kim, Hyeonwook Park, Woo Kyoung Kim, Gregory M. Hanket, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“Characterization of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layer fabricated by selenization process from metal precursor,” Yuki Tauchi, Kihwan Kim, Hyeonwook Park, William Shafarman, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“Laser textured heterojunction solar cells on 45 um thick Si wafers: effect of optical configuration and light trapping,” Steven Hegedus, Ujjwal Das, Chris Vineis, Moran Levy-Finklshtein, Jason Sickler, Jim Carey, Proc. 38th IEEE PVSC, Austin, TX, June 3-6, (2012).

2012

“Analysis of voltage and temperature dependent photocurrent collection in p3ht/pcbm solar cells,” Bakhtyar Ali, Roy Murray, Steven S. Hegedus and S. Ismat Shah, J. Appl. Phys. 112, 114514, (2012).

2012

“Review of photovoltaic module energy yield (kWh/kW): comparison of crystalline Si and thin film technologies,” Steven Hegedus, WIREs Energy Environ. doi: 10.1002/wene.61, (2012).

2012

“Metal-Modified Tungsten and Molybdenum Carbide Electrocatalysts for Energy Conversion,” Yannick C. Kimmel, Daniel V. Esposito, Robert W. Birkmire, Jingguang G. Chen, 12 AIChE Annual Meeting, (2012).

2012

“An Investigation of the Surface Properties of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films,” H. Simchi, B.E. McCandless, K. Kim, J.H. Boyle, R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 10/2012; 2(4):519-523., (2012).

2012

“Cadmium tin oxide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering for photovoltaic applications,” Tiejun Meng, Brian McCandless, Wayne Buchanan, Evan Kimberly, Robert Birkmire, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 04/2013; 556:39?44. DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.12.146, (2012).

2011

“Atomic layer deposition of pt on tungsten monocarbide (WC) for the oxygen reduction reaction,” Irene J. Hsu, Danielle A. Hansgen, Brian E. McCandless, Brian G. Willis, Jingguang Chen, J. Phys. Chem. 115, 3709-3715, (2011).

2011

“Ga homogenization by simultaneous H2Se/H2S reaction of Cu-Ga-In precursor,” Woo Kyoung Kim, Gregory M. Hanket, William N. Shafarman, J. Sol. Mat. 95, 235-238, (2011).

2011

“Metastable properties of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 with and without sodium,” Peter T. Erslev, William N. Shafarman, J. David Cohen, Applied Physics Letters 98, 062105, (2011).

2011

“Hydrogen production from photo-driven electrolysis of biomass-derived oxygenates: A case study on methanol using Pt-modified WO3 thin film electrodes,” Daniel V. Esposito, Jingguang G. Chen, Robert W. Birkmire, Yuancheng Chang, Nicolas Gaillard, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 36, 9632-9644, (2011).

2011

“Structural characterization of the (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 thin film alloy system for solar cells,” J.H. Boyle, B.E. McCandless, G.M. Hanket, W.N. Shafarman, Thin Solid Films, (2011).

2011

“Improved FF in p-Si heterojunction solar cells due to optimized ITO/emitter contact,” Zeynep Eygi, Ujjwal Das, Steven Hegedus, Robert Birkmire, Proc. 37th IEEE PVSC, Seattle WA, June 20-24, (2011).

2011

“Surface Characterization of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 Thin Films for Solar Cells,” Hamed Simchi, Brian McCandless, William Shafarman, Kihwan Kim, Jonathan Boyle and Robert Birkmire, Proc. 37th IEEE PVSC, Seattle WA, June 20-24, (2011).

2011

“Cu-In-Ga Metal Precursors Sputter Deposited from a Single Ternary Target for Cu(lnGa)(SeS)2 Film Formation,” Trang Huynh, Wayne Buchanan, Kihwan Kim, Brian McCandless, William Shafarman, Robert Birkmire, Proc. 37th IEEE PVSC, Seattle WA, June 20-24, (2011).

2011

“Interdigitated back contact silicon hetero-junction solar cells: the effect of doped layer defect levels on fill factor using two-dimensional simulations,” John Allen, Brent Shu, Ujjwal Das, Steven Hegedus, Proc. 37th IEEE PVSC, Seattle WA, June 20-24, (2011).

2011

“Atomic Layer Deposition of Pt on Tungsten Monocarbide (WC) for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction,” Irene J. Hsu, Danielle A. Hansgen, Brian E. McCandless, Brian G. Willis and Jingguang G. Chen, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 115,3709-3715, C, (2011).

2011

“Properties of amorphous silicon passivation layers for all back contact c-Si heterojunction solar cells Lulu Zhang, Ujjwal Das, Jesse Appel, Steve Hegedus, Robert Birkmire,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 1321 ?, 2011 Materials Research Society DOI: 10.1557/opl.2011.942, (2011).

2010

“Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Film Formation From Selenization of Mixed Metal/Metal-selenide Precursors,” Rui Kamada, William N. Shafarman and Robert W. Birkmire, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 94, 451, (2010).

2010

“A Comparative Study of Photoconductivity and Carrier Transport in a-Si:H p-i-n Solar Cells with Different Back Contacts,” R. Kaplan, B. Kaplan, S.S. Hegedus, Solid-State Electronics 54, 22, (2010).

2010

“Device Characterization of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells,” William Shafarman, Christopher Thompson, Jonathan Boyle, Gregory Hanket, Peter Erslev and J. David Cohen, Proc. 35th IEEE PVSC, Waikiki, Hawaii, June 21-25, (2010).

2010

“Commercial-Scale Sources for the Evaporation of Elemental Cu, Ga, and In: Modeling, Design and Validation,” Gregory M. Hanket, Robert W. Birkmire, Shannon Fields and Erten Eser, Proc. 35th IEEE PVSC, Waikiki, Hawaii, June 21-25, (2010).

2010

“Wide-bandgap (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 Absorber Layers Deposited by Three-stage Co-evaporation,,” Gregory Hanket, Jonathan H. Boyle, William N. Shafarman and Glenn Teeter, Proc. 35th IEEE PVSC, Waikiki, Hawaii, June 21-25, (2010).

2010

“Alternative Approaches for Low Temperature Front Surface Passivation of Interdigitated Back Contact Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Brent Shu, Ujjwal Das, Jesse Appel, Brian McCandless, Steven Hegedus and Robert Birkmire, Proc. 35th IEEE PVSC, Waikiki, Hawaii, June 21-25, (2010).

2010

“Encapsulation of Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells with ALD Al2O3 Flexible Thin-film Moisture Barrier; Stability Under 1000 Hour Damp Heat and UV Exposure,” Steven S. Hegedus, P.F. Carcia, R.S. McLean, Bradley Culver, Proc. 35th IEEE PVSC, Waikiki, Hawaii, June 21-25, (2010).

2010

“Quantitative Analysis and Extraction of Cell Parameters from Interconnected Thin-Film Solar Modules Through LBIC-voltage Sweeps,” Jonathan M. Frey, Steven S. Hegedus and Christopher P. Thompson, Proc. 35th IEEE PVSC, Waikiki, Hawaii, June 21-25, (2010).

2010

“Investigation of Hetero-interface and Junction Properties in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Ujjwal Das Steven Hegedus, Lulu Zhang, Jesse Appel, Jim Rand and Robert Birkmire, Proc. 35th IEEE PVSC, Waikiki, Hawaii, June 21-25, (2010).

2010

“Cu(InGa)Se2 Photovoltaics on Insulated Stainless Steel Web Substrate,” Erten Eser, Shannon Fields, Woo K. Kim, Elizabeth McQuiston, Kihwan Kim and William N. Shafarman, Proc. 35th IEEE PVSC, Waikiki, Hawaii, June 21-25, (2010).

2010

“Effect of Junction Interface Modification of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Jesse Appel, Lulu Zhang, Ujjwal Das, Steven Hegedus, Swapna Mudigonda, Robert Birkmire, Jim Rand, Proc. 35th IEEE PVSC, Waikiki, Hawaii, June 21-25, (2010).

2010

“Optimization of Interdigitated Back Contact Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Tailoring Hetero-interface Band Structures While Maintaining Surface Passivation,” Meijun Lu, Ujjwal Das, Stuart Bowden, Steven Hegedus and Robert Birkmire, Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. DOI: 10.1002/pip. 1032, (2010).

2010

“Commercial-Scale Deposition of Cu(InGa)Se2 Thin Films by Thermal Evaporation,” Gregory M. Hanket, Future Photovoltaics, Sept, (2010).

2010

“Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon films deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition on glass substrates,” Ozgenc Ebil, Roger Aparicio, Robert Birkmire, Thin Solid Films 510, 178, (2010).

2010

“Encapsulation of Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cell with Al2O3 Thin-film Moisture Barrier rown by Atomic Layer Deposition,” P.F. Carcia, R.S. McLean, Steven Hegedus, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 94, 2375-2378, (2010).

2010

“Thin-Film Solar Cells and Modules,” Robert W. Birkmire, Solar Cells and Their Applications, Second Edition book (Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering), Chapter 6, 137-157, (2010).

2010

“CdTe thin film technology: Leading thin film PV into the future,” Robert W. Birkmire, Brian E. McCandless, Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science 14, 139-142, (2010).

2010

“Low-cost hydrogen-evolution catalysts based on monolayer platinum on tungsten monocarbide substrates,” Daniel Esposito, Sean T. Hunt, Alan L. Stottlemyer, Kevin D. Dobson, Brian E. McCandless, Robert W. Birkmire, Jingguang G. Chen, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9859-9862, (2010).

2010

“Electrochemical stability of tungsten and tungsten monocarbide (WC) Over Wide pH and Potential Ranges,” Mark C. Weidman, Daniel Esposito, Irene J. Hsu, Jingguang Chen, J. Electrochem. Soc. 157 (12), F179-F188, (2010).

2000-2010 ARCHIVE
2000-2010 ARCHIVE
2009

“The Influence of Na on Metastable Defect Kinetics in CIGS Materials,” Peter T. Erslev, Jin Woo Lee, William N. Shafarman, J. David Cohen, J. Thin Film Solids 517, 2277-2381, (2009).

2009

“Optimization of Interdigitation Parameters for Back Contact Si Heterojunction Solar Cells,” O. Jani, U. Das, S. Herasimenka, M. Lu, D. Xu, S. Bowden, S. Hegedus, R. Birkmire, PVSEC18, (2009).

2009

“Designing Rear Surface for Carrier Transport in Back Contact Si Heterojunction Solar Cells,” U. Das, M. Lu, D. Xu, O. Jani, S. Bowden, S. Hegedus, R. Birkmire, PVSEC18, (2009).

2009

“In-situ Post-deposition Thermal Annealing of Co-evaporated Cu(InGa)Se2 Thin Films Deposited at Low Temperatures,” James D. Wilson, Brian E. McCandless, Robert W. Birkmire, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 34th IEEE PVSC, Philadelphia, PA, June 8-12, (2009).

2009

“Characterization and Device Performance of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 Absorber Layers,” Gregory M. Hanket, Jonathan H. Boyle, and William N. Shafarman, Proc. 34th IEEE PVSC, Philadelphia, PA, June 8-12, (2009).

2009

“Processing of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells from Electrodeposited Precursors,” Kevin D. Dobson and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 34th IEEE PVSC, Philadelphia, PA, June 8-12, (2009).

2009

“Ga Distribution and Adhesion Issues in Selenization of Metallic Cu-Ga-In Precurcors,” Woo Kyoung Kim, Gregory M. Hanket and William N. Shafarman, Proc. 34th IEEE PVSC, Philadelphia, PA, June 8-12, (2009).

2009

“Optimization of Interdigitated Back Contact Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells by Two-dimensional Numerical Simulation,” Meijun Lu, Ujjwal Das, Stuart Bowden, Steven Hegedus and Robert Birkmire, Proc. 34th IEEE PVSC, Philadelphia, PA, June 8-12, (2009).

2009

“Low Temperature Front Surface Passivation of Interdigitated Back Contact Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Brent Shu, Ujjwal Das, Omkar Jani, Steven Hegedus and Robert Birkmire, Proc. 34th IEEE PVSC, Philadelphia, PA, June 8-12, (2009).

2009

“Optical and Quantum Efficiency Analysis of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 Absorber Layers,” Jonathan Boyle, Gregory Hanket and William Shafarman, Proc. 34th IEEE PVSC, Philadelphia, PA, June 8-12, (2009).

2009

“Roll-to-Roll Deposition of a Semiconductor Film on a Flexible Substrate for Photovoltaics: Conception to Reality,” Gregory M. Hanket, Robert W. Birkmire, Scott C. Jackson and Richard E. Rocheleau, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 48, 5923-5933, (2009).

2009

“Scaleup of Cu(InGa)Se2 Thin Film Coevaporative Physical Vapor Deposition Process, 1. Evaporation Source Model Development,” Kapil Mukati, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, Erten Eser, Shannon Fields and Robert W. Birkmire, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 48, 5975-5991, (2009).

2009

“Understanding Defect-related Issues Limiting Efficiency of CIGS Solar Cells,” Matgorzata Igalson, Pawel Zabierowski, Daniel Przado, Aleksander Urganiak, Marika Edoff, William N. Shafarman, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 93, 1290-1295, (2009).

2009

“Pin Double-heterojunction Thin-film Solar Cell p-layer Assessment,” J.A. Spies, R. Schafer, J.F. Wager, P. Hersh, H.A.S. Platt, D.A. Keszler, G. Schneider, R. Kykyneshi, J. Tate, X. Lu, A.D. Compaan, W.N. Shafarman, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 93, 1296-1308, (2009).

2009

“Characterizing the Effects of Silver Alloying in Chalcopyrite CIGS Solar Cells with Junction Capacitance Methods,” Peter T. Erslev, Gregory M. Hanket, William N. Shafarman and J. David Cohen, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. 1165, 1165-M01-07, (2009).

2009

“A New Photoelectrochemical Test Cell and Its Use for a Combined Two-electrode and Three-electrode Approach to Cell Testing,” Daniel V. Esposito, Ouloide Y. Goue, Kevin D. Dobson, Brian E. McCandless, Jingguang G. Chen and Robert W. Birkmire, Review of Scientific Instruments 80, 125107, (2009).

2009

“A Comparative Study of Tungsten Monocarbide and Platinum as Counterelectrodes in Polysulfide-Based Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells,” D.V. Esposito, K.D. Dobson, B.E. McCandless, R.W. Birkmire and J.G. Chen, J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, B962-B969, (2009).

2009

“Hole drift mobility measurements in polycrystalline CuIn1-xGaxSe2,” S. A. Dinca, E. A Schiff, B. Egaas, R. Noufi, D. L. Young, W. N. Shafarman, Physical Review B 80, 235201, (2009).

2009

“Characterization of ALD copper thin film on palladium seed layers,” Irene J. Hsu, Brian McCandless, Conan Weiland, and Brian G. Willis, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, Citation: J Vac. Sci. Technol. A 27, 660, (2009).

2008

“Electrodeposition of CuInSe2 Absorber Layers from pH Buffered and Non-buffered Sulfate-based Solutions,” C. Sene, M. Estela Calixto, Kevin D. Dobson, Robert W. Birkmire, Thin Solid Films 516, 2188, (2008).

2008

“Surface Passivation and Heterojunction Cells on Si (100) and (111) Wafers Using dc and rf Plasma Deposited Si:H Thin Films,” U.K. Das, M.Z. Burrows, M. Lu, S. Bowden and R.W. Birkmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063504, (2008).

2008

“Electronic Level Alignment at the Deeply Buried Absorber/Mo Interface in Chalcopyrite-based Thin Film Solar Cells,” M. Bar, S. Nichiwaki, L. Weinhardt, S. Pookpanratana, W.N. Shafarman and C. Heske, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 042110, (2008).

2008

“Chemical Structures of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo Interfaces,” M. Bar, L. Weinhardt, C. Heske, S. Nishiwaki and W.N. Shafarman, Phys. Rev. B 78, 075404, (2008).

2008

“Composition Control of Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Deposited by Elemental Coevaporation,” Shiro Nishiwaki and William N. Shafarman, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 034912, (2008).

2008

“Effect of Texturing and Surface Preparation on Lifetime and Cell Performance in Heterojunction Silicon Solar Cells,” Matthew Edwards, Stuart Bowden, Ujjwal Das, Michael Burrows, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92, 1373, (2008).

2008

“Improved Passivation of a-Si:H/c-Si Interfaces Through Film Restructuring,” M.Z. Burrows, U.K. Das, S. Bowden, S.S. Hegedus, R.L. Opila, and R.W. Birkmire, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1066, 1066-A02-05, (2008).

2008

“Role of Hydrogen Bonding Environment in a-Si:H Films for c-Si Surface Passivation,” M.Z. Burrows, U.K. Das, R.L. Opila, S. DeWolf, R.W. Birkmire, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A26(4), 683, (2008).

2008

“Pathways to Improved Performance and Processing of CdTe and CuInSe2 Based Modules,” Robert Birkmire, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“Stability of Amorphous-Crystalline Silicon Heterojunctions,” Stuart Bowden, Ujjwal Das, Robert Birkmire, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“Rear Surface Passivation of Interdigitated Back Contact Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell and 2D Simulation Study,” Meijun Lu, Ujjwal Das, Stuart Bowden, Robert Birkmire, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“Effect of Reaction Temperature on Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Formation by Sequential H2Se/H2S Precursor Reaction Processes,” Gregory Hanket, Rui Kamada, William Shafarman, Woo Kyoung Kim, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“Cu(InGa)Se2 Film Formation from Selenization of Mixed Metal./Metal-selenide Precursors,” Rui Kamada, William Shafarman, Robert Birkmire, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“High Throughput Processing CdTe/CdS Solar Cells with Thin Absorber Layers,” Brian McCandless and Wayne Buchanan, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“Cross-Section Potential Analysis of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy,” Brian McCandless and Sergey Rykov, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“Control of Composition in Co-evaporated Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Thin Films,” Shiro Nishiwaki, Greg Hanket, Robert Birkmire and William Shafarman, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“Temperature Dependence of VOC in CdTe and Cu(InGa)(SeS)2-based Solar Cells,” Christopher Thompson, Steven Hegedus, William Shafarman and Darshini Desai, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“In-situ Annealing of Cu(InGa)Se2 Films Grown by Elemental Co-evaporation,” James Wilson, Robert Birkmire and William Shafarman, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“Properties of Encapsulated CIGS Cells in 85?C/85%RH,” Larry C. Olsen, Mark E. Gross, Sambhu N. Kundu, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“Band Gap Energy of Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cell Absorbers Determined by Soft X-ray Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy,” M. Bar, L. Weinhardt, S. Pookpanratana, C. Heske, S. Nishiwaki. W.N. Shafarman, O. Fuchs. M. Blum, W. Yang. J.D. Delinnger, Proc. 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference,, (2008).

2008

“Characterization of 19.9%-Efficient CIGS Absorbers,” I. Repins, M. Contreras, M. Romero, Y. Yan, W. Metzger, J. Li, S. Johnston, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, R. Noufi, Solopower, Proc. 33rd IEEE PVSC,, (2008).

2008

“Structure and Optoelectronics of Electrodeposited Cadmium Ditelluride (CdTe2),” Jean Rousset, Par Olsson, Brian McCandless and Daniel Lincot, American Chemical Society, 6550, (2008).

2008

“Development of CuInSe2 Nanocrystal and Nanoring Inks for Low-Cost Solar Cells,” Qiije Guo, Suk Jun Kim, Mahaprasad Kar, William N. Shafarman, Robert W. Birkmire, Eric A Stach, Rakesh Agrawal and Hugh W. Hillhouse, Nano Letters 8 (9), 2982-2987, (2008).

2008

“Progress Towards High Efficiency All Back Contact c-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells,” U. Das, S. Bowden, M. Lu, M. Burrows, D. Xu, O. Jani, S. Hegedus, R. Birkmire, Proc. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, 70, (2008).

2008

“Depth-resolved band gap in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin films,” M. Bar, S. Nishiwaki, L. Weinhardt, S. Pookpanratana, O. Fuchs, M. Blum, W. Yang, J. D. Denlinger, W. N. Shafarman, C. Heske, Applied Physics Letters 93, 244103, (2008).

2007

“Contact Wetting Angle as a Characterization Technique for Processing CdTe/CdS Solar Cells,” M.S. Angelo, B.E. McCandless, R.W. Birkmire, R.A. Rykov and J.G. Chen, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 15, 93, (2007).

2007

“Interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cell and the effect of front surface passivation,” Meijun Lu, Stuart Bowden, Ujjwal Das, Robert Birkmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063407, (2007).

2007

“Composition Control in the Deposition of Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Thin Films,” William Shafarman, Gregory Hanket, and Shiro Nishiwaki, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1012, 1012-Y02-01, (2007).

2007

“Understanding Metastable Defect Creation in CIGS by Detailed Device Modeling and Measurements on Bifacial Solar Cells,” JinWoo Lee, David Berney Needleman,William N. Shafarman, and J. David Cohen, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1012, 1012-Y04-02, (2007).

2007

“Energetics of Both Minority and Majority Carrier Transitions through Deep Defects in Wide Bandgap Pentenary Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Thin Film Solar Cells.,” Adam Halverson, Shiro Nishiwaki, William Shafarman and J. David Cohen, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.1012, 1012-Y04-04, (2007).

2007

“Electronic Defects and Device Performance in CuGaSe2 Solar Cells,” J. Jedediah Rembold, Todd W. Curtis, Jennifer T. Heath, David L. Young, Steve W. Johnston and William N. Shafarman, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.1012, 1012-Y12-27, (2007).

2007

“Study of the Electronic Properties of Matched Na-Containing and Reduced-Na CuInGaSe2 Samples Using Junction Capacitance Methods,” Peter T. Erslev, Adam Halverson, William Shafarman and J. David Cohen, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1012, 1012-Y12-30, (2007).

2007

“Hydrofluoric Acid Treatment of Amorphous Silicon Films for Photovoltaic Processing,” M. Burrows, U. Das, M. Lu, S. Bowden, R. Opila and R. Birkmire, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 989, 0989-A18-06, (2007).

2007

“Interdigitated Back Contact Silicon Heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) Solar Cell,” Meijun Lu, Stuart Bowden, Ujjwal Das, Michael Burrows and Robert Birkmire, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 989, 0989-A24-05, (2007).

2007

“Incongruent Reaction of Cu-(InGa) Intermetallic Precursors in H2Se and H2S,” G.M. Hanket, W.N. Shafarman, B.E. McCandless and R.W. Birkmire, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074823, (2007).

2007

“Voltage Dependent Photocurrent Collection in CdTe/CdS Solar Cells,” Steven Hegedus, Darshini Desai and Chris Thompson, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 15, 587, (2007).

2007

“Determining lifetime silicon blocks and wafers with accurate expressions for carrier density,” Stuart Bowden, Ronald A. Sinton, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 124501, (2007).

2007

“Evaluation of HF Treated Amorphous Silicon for Photoemission Determined Electronic Levels,” M. Burrow, R. Opila, K. Kemirkan, M. Lu, U. Das, S. Bowden and R. Birkmire, Proc. 22nd Euro. PV Solar Energy Conf., 1290, (2007).

2007

“Surface Passivation Quality and Structure of Thin Si:H Layers on N-type Crystalline Si (100) and (111) Wafers,” U.K. Das, M.Burrows, M. Lu, S. Bowden and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. 22nd Euro. PV Solar Energy Conf., 1290, (2007).

2007

“A-Si/c-Si Heterojunction for Interdigitated Back Contact Solar Cell,” Meijun Lu, Stuart Bowden, Ujjwal Das and Robert Birkmire, Proc. 22nd Euro. PV Solar Energy Conf., 1290, (2007).

2007

“Milestones Toward 50% Efficient Solar Cell Modules,” Allen Barnett, Douglas Kirkpatrick, Christiana Honsberg, Duncan Moore, Mark Wanlass, Keith Emery, Richard Schwartz, Dave Carlson, Stuart Bowden, Dan Aiken, Allen Gray, Sarah Kurtz, Larry Kazmerski, Tom Moriarty, Myles Steiner, Jeffrey Gray, Tom Davenport, Roger Buelow, Laszio Takacs, Markis Shatz, John Bortz, Omkar Jani, Keith Goossen, Fouad Kiamilev, Alan Doolittle, Ian Ferguson, Blair Unger, Grag Schmidt, Eric Christensen, David Salzman, Proc. 22nd Euro. PV Solar Energy Conf., 1290, (2007).

2007

“Texturing for Heterojunction Silicon Solar Cells,” Matthew B. Edwards, Stuart B. Bowden, and Ujjwal K. Das, Proc. 22nd Euro. PV Solar Energy Conf., 1290, (2007).

2007

“a-Si/c-Si Heterojunction for Interdigitated Back Contact Solar Cell,” Meijun Lu, Stuart Bowden, Ujjwal Das and Robert Birkmire, Proc. 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules, (2007).

2007

“Effect of Surface Passivation on Si Heterojunction and Interdigitated Back Contact Solar Cells,” U.K. Das, S. Bowden, M.Burrows, M. Lu and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. 17th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules,, (2007).

2007

“Two Dimensional Modeling of Interdigitated Back Contact Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Meijun Lu, Stuart Bowden, Robert Birkmire, Proc. IEEE NUSOD Int?l Conf. 10.1109/NUSOD.2007.4349021, 55-56, (2007).

2006

“Comparison of Device Performance and Measured Transport Parameters in Widely-Varying Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) Solar Cells,” I. L. Repins, B. J. Stanbery, D.L. Young, S.S. Li, W.K. Metzger, C.L. Perkins,W.N. Shafarman, M.E. Beck, L. Chen, V.K. Kapur, D. Tarrant, M.D. Gonzalez, D.G. Jensen, T.J.Anderson, X. Wang, L.L. Kerr, B. Keyes, S. Asher, A. Delahoy and B Von Roedern, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 14, 25, (2006).

2006

“Sulfur Incorporation into Copper Indium Diselenide Single Crystals Through Annealing in Hydrogen Sulfide,” Jochen Titus, Robert W. Birkmire, Christina Hack, Georg Muller and Patrick McKeown, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 043502, (2006).

2006

“Controlling Growth Chemistry and Morphology of Single-Bath Electrodeposited Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Application,” M. Estela Calixto, Kevin D. Dobson, Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(6), G521, (2006).

2006

“Thin Film Solar Modules: The Low Cost, High Throughput and Versatile Alternative to Si Wafers,” S. Hegedus, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl.14, 393, (2006).

2006

“Role of Bulk Defect States in Limiting CIGS Device Properties,” JinWoo Lee, Jennifer T. Heath. J. David Cohen and William N. Shafarman, Proc. 32nd IEEE PVSC and WCPEC-4, 360, (2006).

2006

“Electronic Properties of Wide Bandgap Penetenary Chalcopyrite Alloys and their Photovoltaic Devices,” Adam Halverson, Shiro Nishiwaki, William Shafarman and J. David Cohen, Proc. 32nd IEEE PVSC and WCPEC-4, 364, (2006).

2006

“How CdTe Solar Cells Operate: Determining Collection Using Befacial Device Characterization,” D. Desai, S. Hegedus, B. McCandless, R. Birkmire, K. Dobson, D. Ryan, Proc. 32nd IEEE PVSC and WCPEC-4, 368, (2006).

2006

“Characterization of Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells Using Etched Absorber Layers,” William N. Shafarman, Rongxue S. Huang, Scott H. Stephens, Proc. 32nd IEEE PVSC and WCPEC-4, 420, (2006).

2006

“Preparation of Wide Bandgap Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Solar Cells with Improved Fill Factor,” Shiro Nishiwaki and William N. Shafarman, Proc. 32nd IEEE PVSC and WCPEC-4, 461, (2006).

2006

“Thin Film Cadmium Zinc Telluride Solar Cells,” Brian E. McCandless, Wayne A. Buchanan and Gregory M. Hanket, Proc.32nd IEEE PVSC and WCPEC-4, 483, (2006).

2006

“Composition Control in the Growth of Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 by the Reaction of Cu-In-Ga Precursors in H2Se and H2S,” Gregory M. Hanket, William N. Shafarman, Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 32nd IEEE PVSC and WCPEC-4, 560, (2006).

2006

“Effect of Process Paramater Variation in Deposited Emitter and Buffer Layers on the Performance of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Ujjwal Das, Stuart Bowden, Michael Burrows, Steven Hegedus and Robert Birkmire, Proc. 32nd IEEE PVSC and WCPEC-4, 1283, (2006).

2006

“Carrier Lifetime as a Developmental and Diagnostic Tool in Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” S. Bowden, U.K. Das, S.S. Hegedus, R.W. Birkmire, Proc. 32nd IEEE PVSC and WCPEC-4, 1295, (2006).

2006

“Design Strategy for Scale-Up of Physical Vapor Deposition of Cu(InGa)Se2 on Flexible Substrates,” Kapil Mukati, Babatunde A. Ogunnaike, Erten Eser, Shannon Fields, Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 32nd IEEE PVSC and WCPEC-4, 1842, (2006).

2006

“Surface Sulfurization Studies of Cu(InGa)Se2 Thin Film,” Udai P. Singh, William N. Shafarman, Robert W. Birkmire, Solar Energy Mat. & Solar Cells 90, 623, (2006).

2006

“Break-even Price Estimates for Residental PV Applications in OECD Countries with an Analysis of Prospective Cost Reductions,” Daniele Poponi, John Bryne and Steven Hegedus, Energy Studies Rev. 14(1), 104, (2006).

2006

“Oxygen Pressure Dependence of Copper Ion Transport in SiO2 Dielectrics,” L.P. Shepherd, A. Matthew, B.E. McCandless and B.G. Willis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(3), 1287, (2006).

2006

“Void Formation and Surface Energies in Cu(InGa)Se2,” C. Lei, A. Rockett, I.M. Robertson, W.N. Shafarman and M. Beck, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073518, (2006).

2006

“Design of a Vapor Transport Deposition Process for Thin Film Materials,” G.M. Hanket, B.E. McCandless, W.A. Buchanan, S. Fields and R.W. Birkmire, J. Vac. Sci. and Technol. A, 24(5), 1695, (2006).

2005

“Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells on a Flexible Polymer Web,” Robert Birkmire, Erten Eser, Shannon Fields, William Shafarman, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 13(2), 141, (2005).

2005

“Mass and Heat Transfer Modeling of a Physical Vapor Deposition Effusion Source,” S. Tobias Junker, Robert W. Birkmire and Francis J. Doyle III, AIChE Journal 51(3), 878, (2005).

2005

“Sputtered Cd1-xZnxTe Films for Top Junctions in Tandem Solar Cells,” Sung Hyun Lee, Akhlesh Gupta, ShanLiWang, Alvin D. Compaan, Brian E. McCandless, Solar Energy Mat. & Solar Cells, 551, (2005).

2005

“Losses in CuInSe2-Based Thin Film Monolithic Tandem Solar Cells,” William N. Shafarman and Puthur D. Paulson, Proc. 31st EEE PVSC, 231, (2005).

2005

“Chalcogen Incorporation in Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Coevaporated Thin Films,” Alex Stavrides, Clifford Yapp, William Shafarman, Roger Aparicio, Robert Opila and Robert Birkmire, Proc. 31st IEEE PVSC, 247, (2005).

2005

“High Throughput Processing of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells,” Brian E. McCandless, Wayne A. Buchanan and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 31st IEEE PVSC, 295, (2005).

2005

“Transient Degradation and Recovery of CdS/CdTe Solar Cells,” Steven Hegedus, Darshini Desai, Dan Ryan and Brian McCandless, Proc. 31st IEEE PVSC, 319, (2005).

2005

“Single Bath Electrodeposition of CuInSe2 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 for Thin Film Photovoltaic Cells,” M. Estela Calixto, Kevin D. Dobson, Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 31st IEEE PVSC, 378, (2005).

2005

“Cd1-xZnxTe Solar Cells with 1.6 eV Band Gap,” Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 31st IEEE PVSC, 398, (2005).

2005

“Critical Issues in Vapor Deposition of Cu(InGa)Se2 on Polymer Web: Source Spitting and Back Contact Cracking,” Erten Eser, Shannon Fields, Gregory Hanket, Robert W. Birkmire, Jeffrey Doody, Proc. 31st IEEE PVSC, 515, (2005).

2005

“Critical Issues for Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells on Flexible Polymer Web,” Erten Eser, Shannon Fields, William Shafarman, Robert Birkmire, Submitted to the 19th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT XIX), Sept., (2005).

2005

“Real BOS and System Costs of Off-grid PV Installations in the US: 1987-2004,” Steven Hegedus and Nozumi Okubo, Proc. 31st IEEE PVSC, 1651, (2005).

2005

“CdTe Contacts for CdTe/CdS Solar Cells: Effect of Cu Thickness, Surface Preparation and Recontacting on Device Performance and Stability,” Steven S. Hegedus and Brian E. McCandless, Solar Energy Mat. & Solar Cells 88, 75, (2005).

2005

“The Determination of Carrier Mobilities in CIGS Photovoltaic Devices using High-Frequency Admittance Measurements,” J.W. Lee, J.D. Cohen and W.N. Shafarman, Thin Solid Films 480-481, 336, (2005).

2005

“Five-Source PVD for the Deposition of Cu(In 1-x Ga x)(Se 1-y S y )2 Absorber Layers,” M. Gossla and W.N. Shafarman, Thin Solid Films 480-481, 33, (2005).

2005

“Photocapacitance Spectroscopy in Copper Indium Diselenide Alloys,” J.D. Cohen, J.T. Heath and W.N. Shafarman, Springer Series in Materials Science, Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites, 69, (2005).

2005

“Characterization of the Electronic Properties of Wide Bandgap CuIn(SeS)2 Alloys,” A.F. Halverson, P.T. Erslev, J.W. Lee, J.D. Cohen and W.N. Shafarman, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 865, 519, (2005).

2005

“Application of Advanced Microstructural and Microchemical Microscopy Techniques to Chalcopyrite Solar Cells,” C. Lei, C.M. Li, A. Rockett, I.M. Robertson and W.N. Shafarman, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 865, 93, (2005).

2005

“Analysis of Cu(InGa)Se2 Alloy Film Optical Properties and the Effect of Cu Off-Stoichiometry,” P.D. Paulson, S. H. Stephens and W.N. Shafarman, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 865, 21, (2005).

2005

“Detailed Study of Metastable Effects in the Cu(InGa)Se2 Alloys: Test of Defect Creation Models,” JinWoo Lee, Jennifer T. Heath, J. David Cohen and William N. Shafarman, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 865, 373, (2005).

2005

“Glancing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction of Polycrystalline Thin Films,” Brian E. McCandless, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 865, 75, (2005).

2005

“Understanding Aniline Surface Treatment of CdTe,” Kevin D. Dobson, Stephanie A. Einstein, Daniel D. Sadowsky, Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 865, 293, (2005).

2005

“Transparent ZnTe:Cu Contacts for Bifacial Characterization of CdTe Solar Cells,” Darshini Desai, Steven Hegedus, Brian McCandless and Daniel Ryan, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 865, 405, (2005).

2005

“Growth Mechanisms of Electrodeposited CuInSe2 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Determined by Cyclic Voltammetry,” M. Estela Calixto, Kevin D. Dobson, Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 865, 431, (2005).

2005

“Thin CdTe Solar Cells with High Throughput Processing,” B.E. McCandless, K.D. Dobson, S.S. Hegedus, W.A. Buchanan, D. Desai, R.W. Birkmire, Presented at the Solar Program Review Meeting, (2005).

2005

“Development of a Wide Bandgap Cell for Thin Film Tandem Solar Cells,” William Shafarman, Shiro Nishiwaki, and Brian McCandless, Presented at the Solar Program Review Meeting, (2005).

2005

“Thin Film Si Bottom Cells for High-Efficiency Polycrystalline Tandem Cells,” Vijay Yelundur, Steven Hegedus, Ujjwal Das, Michael Burrows, Ajeet Rohatgi and Robert Birkmire, Presented at the Solar Program Review Meeting, (2005).

2005

“Pathways to Thin Film Polycrystalline Silicon Using Amorphous Silicon Precursors,” O. Ebil, S. Hegedus, M. Lu and R. Birkmire, Presented at the Solar Program Review Meeting, (2005).

2005

“Defect Studies Using Photocapacitance Spectroscopy in the Copper Indium Diselenide Alloys,” J.D. Cohen, J.T. Heath and W.N. Shafarman, Chapter 13 in Wide Gap Chalcopyrites, ed. By U. Rau S. Siebentritt (Springer Scientific), (2005).

2004

“Bulk and Metastable Defects in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Thin Films Using Drive-level Capacitance Profiling,” Jennifer T. Heath, J. David Cohen, William N. Shafarman, J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1000, (2004).

2004

“Optical Properties of Cd1-xZnxTe Films in a Device Structure Using Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” P.D. Paulson, B.E. McCandless and R.W. Birkmire, J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3010, (2004).

2004

“Improved Fill Factors in Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells on Zinc Oxide by Insertion of a Germanium Layer to Block Impurity Incorporation,” G. Ganguly, D.E. Carlson, S.S. Hegedus, D. Ryan, R.G. Gordon, D. Pang, R.C. Reedy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 479, (2004).

2004

“Physical Characterization of Thin-film Solar Cells,” Ken Durose, Sally E. Asher, Wolfram Jaegermann, Dean Levi, Brian E. McCandless, Wyatt Metzger, Helio Moutinho, P.D. Paulson, Craig L. Perkins, James R. Sites, Glenn Teeter and Mathias Terheggen, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 12, 177, (2004).

2004

“Manufacture of Thin-Film Solar Cells: Modeling and Control of Cu(InGa)Se2 Physical Vapor Deposition onto a Moving Substrate,” Sven Tobias Junker, Robert W. Birkmire, Francis J. Doyle, III, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 43, 566, (2004).

2004

“Surface Sulfurization of Thin Film Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells,” Udai P. Singh, William N. Shafarman and Robert W. Birkmire, Technical Digest of Int?l PVSEC-14 1-136, 607, (2004).

2004

“Thin-Film Solar Cells: Device Measurements and Analysis,” Steven S. Hegedus and William N. Shafarman, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 12(3), 155, (2004).

2004

“Thin-Film Solar Cells: An Overview,” K. L. Chopra, P. D. Paulson and V. Dutta, Prog. Photovolt: Res Appl. 12, 69, (2004).

2004

“Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Investigation of Optical and Interface Properties of CdTe Films Deposited on Metal Foils,” P.D. Paulson and Xavier Matthew, Solar Energy Mat. & Solar Cells 82, 279, (2004).

2004

“Material and Device Properties of Single-Phase Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Alloys Prepared by Selenization/Sulfurization of Metallic Alloys,” V. Alberts, J. Titus, R.W. Birkmire, Thin Solid Films 451-452, 207, (2004).

2004

“Accurate Determination of Optical Constants of Textured SnO2 Using Low Incidence Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” P.D. Paulson and Steven S. Hegedus, J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5469, (2004).

2004

“Processing Options for CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells,” Brian E. McCandless, Kevin D. Dobson, Solar Energy 77, 839, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2004.04.012, (2004).

2004

“Evolution and Future Prospects of Inorganic Photovoltaics,” Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. SPIE 5520, 9, (2004).

2004

“Processing Improvements for Roll-to-Roll Deposition of Cu(InGa)Se2,” E. Eser, S. Fields, G. Hanket, R.W. Birkmire, W. Shafarman, Prog. Rev 32, (2004).

2004

“In-Situ Aluminum-Induced Crystallization of Si Thin-Films on Glass Substrates above the Eutectic Temperature using HW-CVD,” Ozgenc Ebil, Roger Aparicio and Robert Birkmire, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 808, A4.24, (2004).

2004

“Thin-Film Solar Cells on Polymer Substrates for Space Power,” A.F. Hepp, J.S. McNatt, J.E. Dickman, D.L. Morel, C.S. Ferekides, M.H.C. Jin, K.K. Banger, N. Orbey, M. Cushman, R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman and R. Newton, 2nd Int?l Energy Conv. Eng. Conf., 5737, (2004).

2004

“Growth and Characterization of Cd1-xZn, Te and CuIn1-xGax(Se1-ySy)2 for Wide Bandgap Solar Cells,” W.N. Shafarman and B.E. McCandless, Presented at the Solar Program Review Meeting,, (2004).

2004

“Progress in Thin Film Si Bottom Cells for High Performance Thin Film Tandem Solar Cells,” Roger Aparicio, Vijay Yelundur, Steven Hegedus, Brian Rounsaville, Ajeet Rohatgi, Robert Birkmire, Presented at the Solar Program Review Meeting,, (2004).

2004

“Evolution of Thin Film Photovoltaics,” Robert W. Birkmire, Steven S. Hegedus and Brian E. McCandless, Paper submitted to World Renewable Energy Congress VIII and printed in Book of Abstracts, 324, (2004).

2003

“Deposition and Structural Characterization of Poly-Si Thin Films on Al-coated Glass Substrates Using Hot-wire Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Ozgenc Ebil, Roger Aparicio, Sutki Hazra, Robert W. Birkmire, Eli Sutter, Thin Solid Films 430, 120, (2003).

2003

“Correlation of Surface Phases with Electrical Behavior in Thin-film CdTe Devices,” B.E. McCandless, S.S. Hegedus, R.W. Birkmire, D. Cunningham, Thin Solid Films 431, 249, (2003).

2003

“Near-Surface Defect Distributions in Cu(In,Ga)Se2,” A. Rockett, D. Liao, J.T. Heath, J.D. Cohen, Y.M. Strzhemechnym L.J. Brillson, K. Ramanathan, W.N. Shafarman, Thin Solid Films 431, 301, (2003).

2003

“New Cd-free Buffer Layer Deposited by PVD:In2S3 Containing Na Compounds.,” N. Barreau, J.C. Bernede, S. Marsillac, C. Amory, W.N. Shafarman, Thin Solid Films 431, 326, (2003).

2003

“Distinguishing Metastable Changes in Bulk CIGS Defect Densities From Interface Effects,” J.T. Heath, J.D. Cohen, W.N. Shafarman, Thin Solid Films 431, 426, (2003).

2003

“Optical Characterization of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Alloy Thin Films by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” P.D. Paulson, R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman, J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 879, (2003).

2003

“Critical Issues for Cu(InAl)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells,” W.N. Shafarman, S. Marsillac, T. Minemoto, P.D. Paulson, R.W. Birkmire, Proc. WCPEC-3, 2869, (2003).

2003

“CuxS Back Contact for CdTe Solar Cells,” Donghwan Kim, Brian E. McCandless, Steven S. Hegedus, and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. WCPEC-3,, (2003).

2003

“Role of Process Chemistry and Stability on CdTe-based Solar Cell Performance,” B. McCandless, K. Dobson, S. Hegedus and P. Paulson, Proc. NCPV Rev. Mtg., 401, (2003).

2003

“Advances in CuInSe2-based Solar Cells: From Fundamentals to Processing,” W. Shafarman, J. Titus, M. Haimbodi, M. Gossla, G. Hanket, S. Marsillac, T. Minemoto, P. Paulson, B. Sang, U. Singh, E. Eser, R. Birkmire, Proc. NCPV Prog. Rev. Mtg., 525, (2003).

2003

“Growth and Characterization of HWCVD Si Films on Al Coated Glass,” by O. Ebil, R. Aparicio, S. Hegedus and R. Birkmire, Proc. NCPV Rev. Mtg., 813, (2003).

2003

“The Dynamics of Cadmium Telluride Etching,” K.D. Dobson, P.D. Paulson, B.E. McCandless, R.W. Birkmire, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 763, 107, (2003).

2003

“Sputtered ZnTe:N and ZnO:Al for Solar Cell Electrodes and Recombination Junctions,” Jennifer Drayton, V. Parikh, G. Rich, A. Gupta, T. Osborn, R.G. Bohn, A.D. Compaan, B.E. McCandless, P.D. Paulson, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 763, 353, (2003).

2003

“New Junction Capacitance Methods for the Study of Defect Distributions and Carrier Properties in the Copper Indium Diselenide Alloys,” J. David Cohen, Jennifer T. Heath and William N. Shafarman, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 763, 429, (2003).

2003

“Photoconductive CdS: How Does It Affect CdTe/CdS Solar Cell Performance?,” S. Hegedus, D. Ryan, K. Dobson, B. McCandless, D. Desai, Mater. Rec. Soc. Symp. Proc. 763, 447, (2003).

2003

“Defects in Copper Indium Aluminum Diselenide Films and their Impact on Photovoltaic Device Performance,” Jennifer T. Heath, J. David Cohen, William N. Shafarman, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 763, B.9.2.1, (2003).

2003

“Chemical Surface Deposition of Ultra-Thin Cadmium Sulfide Films for High Performance and High Cadmium Utilization,” Brian E. McCandless, William N. Shafarman, Proc. PVSEC-3, 562, (2003).

2003

“Status, Trends, Challenges, and the Bright Future of Solar Electricity from Photovoltaics,” S. Hegedus, A. Luque, Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Chapter 1 (A. Luque and S.S. Hegedus, eds.), Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 1, (2003).

2003

“Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells,” W.N. Shafarman, L. Stolt, Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Chapter 13? (A.. Luque and S.S. Hegedus, eds.), Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 567, (2003).

2003

“Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells,” B.E. McCandless, J. Sites, Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Chapter 14? (A. Luque and S.S. Hegedus, eds.), Wiley and Sons, Chichester UK, 617, (2003).

2003

“Determination of Activation Barriers for the Diffusion of Sodium Through CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells,” M.B. Zellner, R.W. Birkmire, E. Eser, W.N. Shafarman and J.G. Chen, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 11(8), 543, (2003).

2003

“Correlation of Surface Phases with Electrical Behavior in Thin-Film CdTe Devices,” B.E. McCandless, S.S. Hegedus, R.W. Birkmire and D. Cunningham, Thin Solid Films 431-432, 249, (2003).

2003

“Formation and Characterization of Electroless-Deposited NiTe2 Back Contacts to CdTe/CdS Thin-Film Solar Cells,,” Kevin D. Dobson, Ofer Rotlevi, Doug. Rose and Gary Hodes, J. Electrochem. Soc. 149(2), G147, (2003).

2003

“Factors Affecting the Stability of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells, Deduced from Stress Tests at Elevated Temperature,” I. Visoly-Fisher, K. D. Dobson, J. Nair, E. Bezalel, G. Hodes, D. Cahen, Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 289, (2003).

2003

“Deposition and Structural Characterization of Poly-Si Thin Films on Al-coated Glass Substrates Using Hot-wire Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Ozgenc Ebil, Roger Aparicio, Sutki Hazra, Robert W. Birkmire, Eli Sutter, Thin Solid Films 430, 120, (2003).

2002

“Cu(In1-xAlx)Se2 Thin Films and Solar Cells,,” P.D. Paulson, M.W. Haimbodi, S. Marsillac, R.W. Birkmire and W.N. Shafarman, J. Appl. Phys. 91(12), 10153, (2002).

2002

“Effect of Plasma and Thermal Annealing on Optical and Electronic Properties of SnO2 Substrates Used for a-Si Solar Cells,” Steven S. Hegedus, J. Appl. Phys. 92(1), 620, (2002).

2002

“Phase Behavior in the CdTe-CdS Pseudobinary System,” Brian E. McCandless, Gregory M. Hanket, D. Garth Jensen and Robert W. Birkmire, J. Vac. Soc. Technol. A. 20(4), 1462, (2002).

2002

“High Efficiency Solar Cells Based on Cu(InAl)Se2 Thin Films,” S. Marsillac, P.D. Paulson, M.W. Haimbodi, R.W. Birkmire and W.N. Shafarman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1350, (2002).

2002

“Cadmium Zinc Telluride Films for Wide Band Gap Solar Cells,” Brian E. McCandless, Proc. 29th IEEE PVSC, 488, (2002).

2002

“Material and Device Characterization of Thin Film Cu(InAl)Se2 Solar Cells,” W.N. Shafarman, S. Marsillac, P.D. Paulson, M.W. Haimbodi, T. Minemoto and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. 29th IEEE PVSC, 519, (2002).

2002

“Properties of Reactively Sputtered ZnTe:N and Its Use in Recombination Junctions,” J. Drayton, C. Taylor, A. Gupta, R.G. Bohn, G. Rich, A.D. Compaan, B.E. McCandless and D. Rose, Proc. 29th IEEE PVSC, 539, (2002).

2002

“Vapor Transport Deposition of Cadmium Telluride Films,” Brian E. McCandless, Robert W. Birkmire, Wayne A. Buchanan, Shannon Fields, Gregory M. Hanket, Proc. 29th IEEE PVSC, 547, (2002).

2002

“Pilot-scale Manufacture of Cu(InGa)Se2 Films on a Flexible Polymer Substrate,” Gregory M. Hanket, Udai P. Singh, Erten Eser, William N. Shafarman and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 29th IEEE PVSC, 567, (2002).

2002

“Correlation Between Deep Defect States and Device Parameters in CuIn1 xGaxSe2 Photovoltaic Devices,” Jennifer T. Heath, J. David Cohen, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 29th IEEE PVSC, 596, (2002).

2002

“Study of a New Indium Sulphide Derivative for Buffer Layer Application,” N. Barreau, S. Marsillac, J.C. Bernede, C. Deudon, L. Brohan, W.N. Shafarman, A. Barreau, Proc. 29th IEEE PVSC, 628, (2002).

2002

“Investigation of Chemical-Bath-Deposited ZnS Buffer Layers for Cu(InGa)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cells,” Baosheng Sang, William N. Shafarman and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 29th IEEE PVSC, 632, (2002).

2002

“Substrate and Back Contact Effects in CIGS Devices on Steel Foil,” W.K. Batchelor, M.E. Beck, R. Huntington, I.L. Repins, A. Rockett, W.N. Shafarman, F.S. Hasson, J.S. Britt, Proc. 29th IEEE PVSC, 716, (2002).

2002

“Optical Design and Analysis of Textured a-Si Solar Cells,” Steven Hegedus, Bhushan Sopori, P.D. Paulson, Proc. 29th IEEE PVSC, 1122, (2002).

2002

“Ionizing Radiation Effects in Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Thin-film Solar Cells,” J. Tringe, J. Nocerino, R. Tallon, W. Kemp, W. Shafarman, D. Marvin, J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 516, (2002).

2002

“Effect of Ga Content on Defect States in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Photovoltaic Devices,” J. T. Heath, J.D. Cohen, W.N. Shafarman, D.X. Liao and A.A. Rockett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4540, (2002).

2002

“Analysis of Quantum Efficiency and Optical Enhancement in Amorphous Si p-i-n Solar Cells,” Steven S. Hegedus and Ruhi Kaplan, Prog. Photovolt:Res. Appl. 10, 257, (2002).

2001

“Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon from Silane: Effect of Process Conditions,,” Atul Pant, T.W.F. Russell, Marylin C. Huff, Roger Aparicio and Robert W. Birkmire, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49(5), 1377, (2001).

2001

“Reactor and Reaction Model for the Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon from Silane,” Atul Pant, Marylin C Huff, and T.W.F. Russell, Ind. Energy Chem. Res. 40(5), 1386, (2001).

2001

“Interdiffusion of CdS/CdTe Thin Films: Modeling X-ray Diffraction Line Profiles,,” Brian E. McCandless, Michael G. Engelmann and Robert W. Birkmire, J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 988, (2001).

2001

“Initial and Stressed Performance of CdTe Solar Cells: Effect of Contact Processing,” S. S. Hegedus, B. E. McCandless and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. NCPV Prog. Rev. Mtg., 119, (2001).

2001

“Thin Si p-layers Containing Boron Doped Micro-crystalline Si and a-SiOx Phases,” E. Eser, W. Buchanan and S. Hegedus, Proc. NCPV Prog. Rev. Mtg., 183, (2001).

2001

“Wide Band Gap CuInSe2 and CdTe-based Thin Films for Tandem Solar Cells,” W. Shafarman, M. Gossla, B. McCandless, Proc. NCPV Prog. Rev. Mtg., 229, (2001).

2001

“Optical, Structural and Transport Properties of Reactively Sputtered ZnTe:N,” J. Drayton, C. Taylor, A. Gupta, R.G. Bohn, A.D. Compaan, B.E. McCandless and D. Rose, Proc. NCPV Prog. Rev. Mtg, 243, (2001).

2001

“Post-Deposition Sulfur Incorporation into CuInSe2 Thin Films,,” Jochen Titus, Hans-Werner Schock, Robert W. Birkmire, William N. Shafarman and Udai P. Singh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp.Proc. 668, H1.5.1, (2001).

2001

“Thermochemical and Kinetic Aspects of Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell Processing,,” Brian E. McCandless, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 668, H1.6.1, (2001).

2001

“Effect of Grain Size, Morphology and Deposition Temperature on Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells,,” William N. Shafarman and Jie Zhu, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 668, H.2.3.1, (2001).

2001

“Optically Assisted Metal-Induced Crystallization of Thin Si Films for Low-Cost Solar Cells,,” Wei Chen, Bhushan Sopori, Kim Jones, Robert Reedy, N.M. Ravindra, Roger Aparicio, Robert Birkmire, Scott Morrison, Ken Coats and Arun Madan, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 685, D32.1, (2001).

2001

“Process Analysis and Modeling of Thin Silicon Film Deposition by Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition,,” R. Aparicio, R. Birkmire, A. Pant, M. Huff, T.W.F. Russell, Proc. 199th Electrochemical Soc. Mtg. 2001-13, 260, (2001).

2001

“Characterization of Deep Defects in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) Working Photovoltaic Devices,,” J.T. Heath, J.D. Cohen, W.N. Shafarman and D.C. Johnson, Proc. 199th Electrochemical Soc. Mtg. 2001-10, 324, (2001).

2001

“Compound Polycrystalline Solar Cells: Recent Progress and Y2K Perspective,,” Robert W. Birkmire, Solar Energy Mat. & Solar Cells 65, 17, (2001).

2001

“Study of Cd-free Buffer Layers Using Inx (OH,S)y on CIGS Solar Cells,,” C.H. Huang, Sheng S. Li, W.N. Shafarman, C.-H. Chang, E.S. Lambers, L. Rieth, J.W. Johnson, S. Kim, B.J. Stanbery, T.J. Anderson and P.H. Holloway, Solar Energy Mat. & Solar Cells 69, 131, (2001).

2001

“Formation and Analysis of Graded CuIn (Se1-ySy)2 Films,,” M. Engelmann, B.E. McCandless and R.W. Birkmire, Thin Solid Films 387, 14, (2001).

2001

“Chalcogenide Solar Cells Grown by Physical Vapor Deposition Technique,” N. Barreau, S. Marsillac, J.D. Bernede and W.N. Shafarman, Proc. 17th Euro. PVSEC and Exhibition, 215, (2001).

2000

“Physical Vapor Deposition of Cu(InGa)Se2 by Co-Evaporation: Modeling for Process Control,,” Sven Tobias Junker, Frank J. Doyle III and Robert W. Birkmire, roc. AIChE Annual Meeting, Paper No. 260C,, (2000).

2000

“Copper-Indium Alloy Transformations,” Nese Orbey, Glover A. Jones, Robert W. Birkmire and T.W. Fraser Russell, Journal of Phase Equilibria 21(6), 509, (2000).

2000

“Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Films by HWCVD,,” R. Aparicio, R. Birkmire, A. Pant, M. Huff and M. Mauk, Proc. NCPV Prog. Rev. Mtg., 219, (2000).

2000

“Deposition of Cu(InGa)Se2 by Inline Evaporation,,” G.M. Hanket, P.D. Paulson, W.N. Shafarman and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. NCPV Prog. Rev. Mtg., 241, (2000).

2000

“Diffusion in CdS/CdTe Thin-Film Couples,,” Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 16th Euro. PV Solar Energy Conf., 349, (2000).

2000

“Process Analysis and Modeling of Thin Silicon Film Deposition by Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition,,” R. Aparicio, R. Birkmire, A. Pant, M. Huff, T.W.F. Russell and M. Mauk, Proc. 16th Euro. PV Solar Energy Conf. 2001-13, 621, (2000).

2000

“Cu(InAl)Se2 Thin Films and Devices Deposited by Multisource Evaporation,,” M.W. Haimbodi, E. Gourmelon, P.D. Paulson, R.W. Birkmire and W.N. Shafarman, Proc. 28th IEEE PVSC, 454, (2000).

2000

“CIGSS Solar Cells Based on CVD ZnO Buffer Layers,,” Larry C. Olsen, F.W. Addis, Liang Huang, William N. Shafarman, Peter Eschbach and G.J. Exarhos, Proc. 28th IEEE PVSC, 458, (2000).

2000

“Influence of Window and Absorber Layer Processing on Device Operation in Superstrate Thin Film CdTe Solar Cells,,” Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 28th IEEE PVSC, 491, (2000).

2000

“Fabrication of Graded Cu(InGa)Se2 Films by Inline Evaporation,” G.M. Hanket, P.D. Paulson, U. Singh, S.T. Junker, R.W. Birkmire, F.J. Doyle III, E. Eser and W.N. Shafarman, Proc. 28th IEEE PVSC, 499, (2000).

2000

“Analysis of Stress-Induced Degradation in CdS/CdTe Solar Cells,” Steven S. Hegedus, Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 28th IEEE PVSC, 535 (2000) and NCPV Prog. Rev. Mtg., (2000).

2000

“Interfacial Optical Spectra in Amorphous Silicon Based pin Solar Cells,,” Kai Zhu, J.H. Lyou, E.A. Schiff, R.S. Crandall, G. Ganguly and S.S. Hegedus, Proc. 28th IEEE PVSC, 725, (2000).

2000

“Characterization of the SnO2/p and ZnO/p Contact Resistance and Junction Properties in a-Si p-i-n Solar Cells and Modules,,” Steven S. Hegedus, Ruhi Kaplan, Gautam Ganguly and George S. Wood, Proc. 28th IEEE PVSC, 728, (2000).

2000

“Reaction Temperature Dependence on CuInSe2 Based Solar Cells Performance Using CuIn Precursors Selenized Using H2Se Gas,,” J.M. Mwabora, W.N. Shafarman and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. 5th Kenya Physical Society (KPS) Regional Workshop, 27, (2000).

2000

“Absorber Thickness Dependence on CuInSe2 Based Solar Cells Performance Using CuIn Precursors Selenized Using H2Se Gas,,” J.M. Mwabora, W.N. Shafarman and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. WREC, 2049, (2000).

2000

“Effect of Substrate Temperature and Deposition Profile on Evaporated Cu(InGa)Se2 films and devices,,” William N. Shafarman and Jie Zhu, Thin Solid Films 361-362, 473, (2000).

2000

“Properties of Electrodeposited CdS Films for Photovoltaic Devices with Comparison to CdS Films Prepared by Other Methods,” F. Kadirgan, D. Mao, W. Song, T. Ohno, B. McCandless, Turkish Journal of Chemistry 24(1), 21, (2000).

1990-2000 ARCHIVE
1990-2000 ARCHIVE
1999

“Influence of Processing Conditions on Performance and Stability in Polycrystalline Thin-Film CdTe-Based Solar Cells,” Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, AIP Conf. Proc. 462, 182, (1999).

1999

“Analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells: Why Performance Decreases with Increasing Ga Content,” J. E. Phillips and W. N. Shafarman, AIP Conf. Proc. 462, 120, (1999).

1999

“A Non-Vacuum Process for Forming CuInSe2,” C. Fredric, C. Eberspacher, K. Pauls, J. Serra and J. Zhu, Proc. 15th NREL/SNL PV Prog. Rev. Mtg., 138, (1999).

1999

“Harnessing the Sun with Thin Film Photovoltaics,” Robert W. Birkmire, Lawrence L. Kazmerski, Proc. 195th Meeting Electrochemical Society 99-11, 24, (1999).

1999

“Critical Issues and Research Needs for CdTe-Based Solar Cells,” A.D. Compaan, J.R. Sites, R.W. Birkmire, C.S. Ferekides and A.L. Fahrenbruch, Proc. 195th Meeting Electrochemical Society, 99-11, 241, (1999).

1999

“Optimization of Vapor Post-deposition Processing for Evaporated CdS/CdTe Solar Cells,” B. E. McCandless, I. Youm and R. W. Birkmire, Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 7(1), 21, (1999).

1999

“Manufacturable Large Area CdS Thin Films for Solar Cell Applications Monitored with Optical Emission Spectroscopy,” L. Wang, I. Eisgruber, R. Hollingsworth, C. DeHart, T. Wangensteen, R. E. Treece, P. Bhat, W. N. Shafarman, Robert W. Birkmire, T. J. Gillespie and R. Wendt, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 569, 127, (1999).

1999

“Infrared Electroabsorption Spectra in Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells,” J.H. Lyou, Eric A. Schiff, Steven S. Hegedus, S. Guha and J. Yang, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 457, (1999).

1999

“A New Method to Characterize TCO/P Contact Resistance in a-Si Solar Cells,” Steven S. Hegedus, Michael Gibson, Gautam Ganguly and Rejeewa Arya, Mateer. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 737, (1999).

1999

“Optical Modeling of a-Si Solar Cells,,” B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S.S. Hegedus, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 557, 755, (1999).

1999

“Advanced Flexible Solar Array Program,,” Peter V. Meyers, Leon Fabick, Kitt C. Reinhardt, William N. Shafarman, Proc. 16th Space PV Research and Technology Conference,, (1999).

1999

“Study of Cd-free Buffer Layers Using Inx(OH,S)y on CIGS Solar Cells,” C.H. Huang, Sheng S. Li, W.N. Shafarman, C.-H. Chang, J.W. Johnson, L. Reith, S. Kim, B.J. Stanbery and T.J. Anderson, Proc. 11th Int?l PV Science & Engineering Conf., 855, (1999).

1999

“Effect and Optimization of CdS/CdTe Interdiffusion on CdTe Electrical Properties and CdS/CdTe Cell Performance,” W. Song, D. Mao, V. Kaydanov, T.R. Ohno, J.U. Trefney, R.K. Ahrenkiel, D.H. Levi, S. Johnston, B.E. McCandless, AIP Conf. Proc. 462, 194, (1999).

1998

“Reaction Analysis of the Formation of CuInSe2 Films in a Physical Vapor Deposition Reactor,” N. Orbey, G. Norsworthy, R.W. Birkmire and T.W.F. Russell, Prog. Photovolt.: Res. Appl. 6, 76, (1998).

1998

“Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium Analysis of I-III-VI Films,” Robert Birkmire and Michael Engelmann, AIP Conf. Proc. 462, 23, (1998).

1998

“Temperature dependence of the magnetic and transport properties of CO15CU85 magnetic granular alloys,” R. H. Yu, J. Zhu, X. X. Zhang and J. Tajada, J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3134, (1998).

1998

“Preparation and Characterization of Micro-Crystalline Hydrogenated Silicon Carbide p-Layers,” Erten Eser, Steven S. Hegedus, and Wayne A. Buchanan, AIP Conf. Proc. 462, 254, (1998).

1998

“Characterizing Contacts to p-type CdTe in CdS/CdTe Solar Cells,” B. E. McCandless, J. E. Phillips and J. Titus, Proc. 2nd World Conference on PV Solar Energy, 448, (1998).

1998

“Monolithically Integrated X-ray Detector Arrays for Computed Tomography,” R. Sudharsanan, M. Yoganathan, G. Vakerlis, C. S. Ferekides, B. McCandless, R. Birkmire, R. Deych and R. Luhta, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 428, 573, (1998).

1997

“Fabrication and Characterization of Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells with Absorber Bandgap from 1.0 to 1.5 eV,,” W.N. Shafarman, R.W. Birkmire, M. Marudachalam, B.E. McCandless and J.M. Schultz, AIP Conf. Proc. 394, 123, (1997).

1997

“Recrystallization and Sulfur Diffusion in CdCl2-Treated CdTe/CdS Thin Films,” B.E. McCandless, L.V. Moulton and R.B. Birkmire, Prog. in Photovolt:Res. Appl. 5, 249, (1997).

1997

“Technology Development versus New Ideas Development by Universities,” T.W.F. Russell, First Generation Photovoltaic Technologies: First NREL Conference, AIP Conf. Proc., 93, (1997).

1997

“A TPV System Using a Gold Filter with CuInSe2 Solar Cells,” W.J. Biter, K.A. Georg and J.E. Phillips, 3rd NREL Thermal Photovoltaic Conference, 443, (1997).

1997

“Effect of Temperature on Copper Indium Selenization,” N. Orbey, H. Hichri, R.W. Birkmire and T.W.F. Russell, Prog. in Photovolt. 5(4), 237, (1997).

1997

“Effect of Reduced Deposition Temperature, Time and Thickness on Cu(InGa)Se2 Films and Devices,” W.N. Shafarman, R.W. Birkmire, S. Marsillac, M. Marudachalam, N. Orbey and T.W.F. Russell, Proc. 26th IEEE PVSC, 331, (1997).

1997

“Recent Progress and Critical Issues in Thin Film Polycrystalline Solar Cells and Modules,” Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 26th IEEE PVSC, 295, (1997).

1997

“Analysis and Optimization of High Efficiency Multijunction a-Si:H Solar Cells,” Richard E. Rocheleau, Moe Tun and Steven S. Hegedus, Proc. 26th IEEE PVSC, 703, (1997).

1997

“Improving Performance of Superstrate p-i-n a-Si Solar Cells by Optimization of n/TCO/Metal Back Contacts,” Steven S. Hegedus, Wayne A. Buchanan and Erten Eser, Proc. 26th IEEE PVSC, 603, (1997).

1997

“Determining the Voltage Dependence of the Light Generated Current in CuInSe2-Based Solar Cells Using I-V Measurements Made at Different Light Intensities,” J.E. Phillips, J. Titus and D. Hofmann, Proc. 26th IEEE PVSC, 463, (1997).

1997

“CdTe1-xSs Absorber Layers for Thin-Film CdTe/CdS Solar Cells,” Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 26th IEEE PVSC, 307, (1997).

1997

“High Efficiency CIGS and CIS Cells with CVD ZnO Buffer Layers,” Larry C. Olsen, Wenhua Lei, F. William Addis, William N. Shafarman, Miguel A. Contreras and Kannan Ramanathan, Proc. 26th IEEE PVSC, 363, (1997).

1997

“Electrodeposited CdS Thin Films and Their Application in CdS/CdTe Solar Cells,” Figen Kadirgan, D. Mao, A. Balcioglu, B.E. McCandless, W. Song, T.R. Ohno and J.U. Trefney, Proc. 26th IEEE PVSC, 443, (1997).

1997

“Introduction to the Thin Film Photovoltaic Symposium Commemorating the 25th Anniversary of the Institute of Energy Conversion at the University of Delaware, USA,” Robert W. Birkmire and Steven S. Hegedus, Prog. In Photovolt: Res. Appl. 5(5), 305, (1997).

1997

“Summary of 4 1/2 Years of Research Experience of the US Amorphous Silicon Research Teams,” B. von Roedern, E. Schiff, J.D. Cohen, S. Wagner and Steven S. Hegedus, Prog. In Photovolt: Res. Appl. 5(5), 345, (1997).

1997

“Substrates, Contacts and Monolithic Integration,” Steven S. Hegedus, Scot Albright, Frank Jeffrey, T.J. McMahon and S. Wiedeman, Prog. In Photovolt: Res. Appl. 5(5), 365, (1997).

1997

“Device and Materials Characterization in Manufacturing,” J. Sites, J. Rand, L.L. Kazmerski and J.E. Phillips, Prog. In Photovolt: Res. Appl. 5(5), 371, (1997).

1997

“Design of Critical Experiments for Scale-up,” T.W.F. Russell, V. Dalal, R. Gay and S. Guha, Prog. In Photovolt: Res. Appl. 5(5), 353, (1997).

1997

“Semiconductor Processing and Manufacturing,” William N. Shafarman, Bulent M. Basol, Jeff S. Britt, Robert B. Hall and Richard E. Rocheleau, Prog. In Photovolt: Res. Appl. 5(5), 359, (1997).

1997

“Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells: Present Status and Future Potential,” Robert W. Birkmire and Erten Eser, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci,, 27(6), 625, (1997).

1997

“Phases, Morphology and Diffusion in CuInxGa1-xSe2 Thin Films,” M. Marudachalam, R. W. Birkmire, H. Hichri, J. M. Schultz, A. Swartzlander and M. M. Al-Jassim, J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2896, (1997).

1997

“Next Generation CIGS for Solar Cells,” A. Rockett, R. W. Birkmire, D. Morel, S. Fonash, J.-Y. Hou, M. Marudachalam, J. D’Amico, P. Panse, S. Zafar and D. J. Schroeder, AIP Conf. Proc. 404, 403, (1997).

1997

“Optical Losses in Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Due to Back Reflectors,” B. L. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, B. V. Roedern, W. Chen and S. S. Hegedus, Proc. Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Technology, (1997).

1997

“Current-Voltage Analysis of a-Si and a-SiGe Solar Cells Including Voltage-dependent Photocurrent Collection,” Steven S. Hegedus, Prog. in Photovolt:Res Appl. 5(3), 151, (1997).

1996

“Progress in Amorphous Silicon PV Technology: An Update,,” W. Luft, H.M. Branz, V.L. Dalal, S.S. Hegedus and E.A. Schiff, AIP Conf. Proc. 353, 81, (1996).

1996

“Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCO’s) for n-i-p and p-i-n Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells,,” Steven S. Hegedus, Wayne A. Buchanan, Erten Eser, James E. Phillips and William N. Shafarman, AIP Conf. Proc. 353, 465, (1996).

1996

“Micro through Nanostructure Investigations of Polycrystalline CdTe: Correlations with Processing and Electronic Structures,” D.H. Levi, H.R. Moutinho, F.S. Hasoon, B.M. Keyes, R.K. Ahrenkiel, M. Al-Jassim, L.L. Kazmerski, R.W. Birkmire, Solar Energy Mat and Solar Cells 41/42, 381, (1996).

1996

“Chemical Reaction Analysis of Copper Indium Selenization,,” Sandeep Verma, Nese Orbey, Robert W. Birkmire and T. W. Fraser Russell, Progress in Photovoltaics 4, 341, (1996).

1996

“Polycrystalline Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Device Perspective,,” J.E. Phillips, R.W. Birkmire, B.E. McCandless, P.V. Meyers and W.N. Shafarman, Phys. stat. sol. (b) 194, 31, (1996).

1996

“Thin Film Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride Alloys,,” D.G. Jensen, B.E. McCandless and R.W. Birkmire, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 426, 326, (1996).

1996

“A Search for Degradation Mechanisms of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells,” P.V. Meyers, M.M. Al-Jassim and S Asher, Mater. Res. Society Symp. Proc. 426, 317, (1996).

1996

“Experimental Investigation of a Field Effect Back Surface Passivation of Silicon Solar Cells,” Yibin Bai, James E. Phillips, Allen M. Barnett, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 425, (1996).

1996

“Characterization of Cu(InGa)Se2 Solar Cells with High Ga Content,,” W.N. Shafarman, R. Klenk and B.E. McCandless, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 763, (1996).

1996

“Thin Film Cadmium Telluride Cadmium Sulfide Alloys and Devices,,” D.G. Jensen, B.E. McCandless and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 773, (1996).

1996

“Vapor Phase Treatment of CdTe/CdS Thin Films with CdCl2:O2,,” B.E. McCandless, H. Hichri, G. Hanket and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 781, (1996).

1996

“Stress Testing of CdTe Solar Cells,,” P.V. Meyers and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 789, (1996).

1996

“Diffusion of In and Ga in Selenized Cu-In and Cu-Ga Precursors,,” M. Marudachalam, H. Hichri, R.W. Birkmire, J.M. Schultz, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 805, (1996).

1996

“Direct Current-Voltage Measurements of the Mo/CuInSe2 Contact on Operating Solar Cells,,” W.N. Shafarman and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 917, (1996).

1996

“Reaction Analysis of the Formation of CIS at Temperatures from 250?C to 400,” N. Orbey, H. Hichri, R.W. Birkmire and T.W.F. Russell, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 981, (1996).

1996

“HCl Vapor Post-deposition Heat Treatment of CdTe/CdS Films,” Y. Qu, P.V. Meyers, B.E. McCandless, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 1013, (1996).

1996

“Analysis of Optical Enhancement in a-Si n-i-p Solar Cells Using a Detachable Back Reflector,,” Steven S. Hegedus & Xunming Deng, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 1061, (1996).

1996

“Effect of Textured Tin Oxide and Zinc Oxide Substrates on the Current Generation in Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells,,” S. Hegedus, W. Buchanan, X. Liu, & R. Gordon, Proc. 25th IEEE PVSC, 1129, (1996).

1996

“Device and Material Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells with Increasing Band Gap,,” William N. Shafarman, Reiner Klenk and Brian E. McCandless, J. Appl. Phys. 79(9), 7324, (1996).

1996

“Processing and Analysis of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells Made from Uniform Single Phase Materials,” R. W. Birkmire, H. Hichri, R. Klenk, M. Marudachalam, B. E. McCandless, J. E. Phillips, J. M. Schultz, W. N. Shafarman, Proc. 13th NREL Program Review, AIP Conf. Proc. 353, 420, (1996).

1996

“Processing Issues for Thin Film CdTe/CdS Solar Cells,,” B.E. McCandless, R.W. Birkmire, D.G. Jensen, J.E. Phillips, & I. Youm, AIP Conf. Proc. 394, 647, (1996).

1996

“Progress Report on the Amorphous Silicon Teaming Activities,” B. von Roedern, K. Zweibel, E. Schiff, J.D. Cohen, S. Wagner, S.S. Hegedus and T. Peterson, Proc. 14th NREL/SNL PV Program Review Meeting, AIP Conf. Proc.,, (1996).

1995

“Characterization and Modeling of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2-based Photovoltaic Devices: A Laboratory and Industrial Perspective,,” J.R. Tuttle, J.R. Sites, A. Delahoy, W. Shafarman, B. Basol, S. Fonash, J. Gray, R. Menner, J. Phillips, A. Rockett, J. Scofield, F.R. Shapiro, P. Singh, V. Suntharalingam, D. Tarrant, T. Walter, S. Wiedeman and T.M. Peterson, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 3, 89, (1995).

1995

“Current Transport in Amorphous Silicon n/p Junctions and their Application asTunnel Junctions in Tandem Solar Cells,,” Steven S. Hegedus, Frank Kampas and Jianping Xi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(6), 813, (1995).

1995

“Galvanic Deposition of Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films,,” B.E. McCandless, A. Mondal and R.W. Birkmire, Solar Energy Mat. & Solar Cells 36(4), 369, (1995).

1995

“The Growth by the Hybrid Sputtering and Evaporation Method and Microstructural Studies of CuInSe2 Films,,” L.-Chung Yang, H.Z. Xiao, A. Rockett, W.N. Shafarman and R.W. Birkmire, Solar Energy Mat. & Solar Cells 36(4), 445, (1995).

1995

“The Future of CdTe Photovoltaics,,” Peter V. Meyers and Robert W. Birkmire, Progress in Photovoltaics 3, 393, (1995).

1995

“Preparation of Homogeneous Cu(InGa)Se2 Films by Selenization of Metal Precursors in H2Se Atmosphere,,” M. Marudachalam, H. Hichri, R. Klenk, R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman and J.M. Schultz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3978, (1995).

1994

“Recent Progress in Amorphous Silicon PV Technology,,” W. Luft, H.M. Branz, V.L. Dalal, S.S. Hegedus and E.A. Schiff, AIP Conf. Proc. 306, 31, (1994).

1994

“Chemical Process and Device Analysis of CuInSe2-Based Solar Cell Materials,,” TW Fraser Russell, Robert W. Birkmire, James E. Phillips, Sandeep Verma and William N. Shafarman, AIP Conf. Proc. 306, 390, (1994).

1994

“Electronic Mobility Gap Structure and Deep Defects in Amorphous Silicon-germanium Alloys,” Thomas Unold, J. David Cohen and Charles M. Fortmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1714, (1994).

1994

“Chemical Kinetic Studies of Copper Indium Selenization,” TW Fraser Russell, Sandeep Verma and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 12th Euro. Communities PV Conf. 1, 633, (1994).

1994

“Lessons Learned from a Hydrogen Explosion at a Photovoltaic Research Facility,,” Paul D. Moskowitz, Wayne Buchanan and William Shafarman, Proc. IEEE First WCPEC (24th IEEE PVSC), 504, (1994).

1994

“A Treatment to Allow Contacting CdTe with Different Conductors,,” B.E. McCandless, Y. Qu and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. IEEE First WCPEC (24th IEEE PVSC), 107, (1994).

1994

“Characterization of Cu-In-Ga Precursors Used to Form Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Films,,” M. Marudachalam, R.W. Birkmire, J. M. Schultz and T. Yokimcus, Proc. IEEE First WCPEC (24th IEEE PVSC), 234, (1994).

1994

“Processing Issues for Thin-Film CdTe Cells and Modules,,” Robert W. Birkmire and Peter V. Meyers, Proc. IEEE First WCPEC (24th IEEE PVSC), 76, (1994).

1994

“A Chemical Kinetic Analysis of the Formation of CuInSe2 at Different Temperatures,,” TW Fraser Russell, Nese Orbey and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. IEEE First WCPEC (24th IEEE PVSC), 238, (1994).

1994

“Polycrystalline CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Thin Film PV Solar Cells Prepared by Two-Stage Selenization Process Using Se Vapor,,” Neelkanth G. Dhere, Shaker Kuttath, Kevin W. Lynn, Robert W. Birkmire and William N. Shafarman, Proc. IEEE First WCPEC (24th IEEE PVSC), 190, (1994).

1994

“Micro Through Nanostructure Investigations of Polycrystalline CdTe: Correlations with Processing and Electronic Structures,,” D.H. Levi, H.R. Moutinho, F.A. Hasoon, B.M. Keyes, R.K. Ahrenkiel, M. Al-Jassim, L.L. Kazmerski and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. IEEE First WCPEC (24th IEEE PVSC), 127, (1994).

1994

“Parametric Analysis of a-Si Solar Cells from Current Voltage Measurements,,” Steven S. Hegedus and James E. Phillips, Proc. IEEE First WCPEC (24th IEEE PVSC), 654, (1994).

1994

“Evidence for Amorphous Like Behavior in Small Grain Thin Film Polycrystalline Solar Cells,,” J.E. Phillips, W.N. Shafarman and Enze Shan, Proc. IEEE First WCPEC (24th IEEE PVSC), 303, (1994).

1994

“Identifying the Recombination Losses that Limit Voc in Thin Silicon Solar Cells by Bifacial Spectral Response Measurements,,” Y.B. Bai, J.E. Phillips and A.M. Barnett, Proc. IEEE First WCPEC (24th IEEE PVSC), 1429, (1994).

1994

“Structure and Chemistry of CuInSe2 for Solar Cell Technology: Current Understanding and Recommendations,,” A. Rockett, F. Abou-Elfotouh, D. Albin, M. Bode, J. Ermer, R. Klenk, T. Lommasson, T.W.F. Russell, R.D. Tomlinson, J. Tuttle, L. Stolt, T. Walter and T.M. Peterson, Thin Solid Films 237, 1, (1994).

1994

“Built-in Potentials via Electroabsorption Measurements in a-Si:H p-i-n Solar Cells: A Critical Assessment,” Q. Wang, E.A. Schiff and S.S. Hegedus, Mater. Res. Society Symp. Proc. 336, 365, (1994).

1994

“Photovoltaics as a Demand-side Management Technology: an Analysis of Peak-shaving and Direct Load Control Options,,” John Byrne, Steven Hegedus and Young-Doo Wang, Prog. in Photovoltaics 2, 235, (1994).

1993

“Current-Voltage Characterization of CuInSe2/CdS Solar Cells Deposited by Different Methods,,” William N. Shafarman and James E. Phillips, Proc. 23rd IEEE PVSC, 453, (1993).

1993

“Reaction Chemistry of CuInSe2 Formation by Selenization Using Elemental Se,,” Satoshi Yamanaka, Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 23rd IEEE PVSC, 607, (1993).

1993

“The Effect of O2 on H2Se Selenization in a Continuous Flow Reactor,,” S. Verma, TWF Russell and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. 23rd IEEE PVSC, 431, (1993).

1993

“Understanding Graded a-SiGe Solar Cells Using Bifacial Photocurrent Collection,,” Steven Hegedus and Wayne Buchanan, Proc. 23rd IEEE PVSC, 991, (1993).

1993

“Process and Device Analysis of CuInSe2 Solar Cells,,” Robert W. Birkmire, Technical Digest 7th Sunshine Workshop, 101, (1993).

1993

“High Efficiency CuInSe2 Solar Cells Using the Selenization Process,,” Robert W. Birkmire, Technical Digest PVSEC-7, 527, (1993).

1993

“The Relationship Between Hydrogen Content, Weak Bond Density and SW Defects in aSi,,” C.M. Fortmann, T.X. Zhou and W.A. Buchanan, Proc. 13th Int’l Conf. on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, 31, (1993).

1993

“Study of Phases Formed During Production of Copper Indium Diselenide by Reacting Copper, Indium and Selenium Layers,” Vikas Sachan, John D. Meakin, Solar Energy Mat. & Solar Cells 30, 147, (1993).

1992

“Electrochemical Deposition of Thin ZnTe Films As a Contact for CdTe Solar Cells,,” Anup Mondal, Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Solar Energy Mat. & Solar Cells 26(3), 181, (1992).

1992

“Fabrication of CuInSe2 Solar Cells in a Superstrate Configuration,,” Takashi Yoshida and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 11th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 811, (1992).

1992

“Reaction Pathways to CuInSe2 Formation by Selenization,,” S. Verma, S. Yamanaka, R.W. Birkmire, B.E. McCandless and T.W.F. Russell, Proc. 11th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 807, (1992).

1992

“Study of the Process Treatments Used for High-Efficiency Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cells,,” H.R. Moutinho, R. Ahmed-Bitar, F.S. Hasoon, R.K. Ahrenkiel, D.I. Dunlavy, B.M. Keyes, A.R. Mason, F.A. Abou-Elfotouh, R.W. Birkmire and L.L. Kazmerski, Proc. 11th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 991, (1992).

1992

“Polycrystalline Heterojunction Solar Cells: Device Perspective,,” J.E. Phillips, W.N. Shafarman, R.W. Birkmire, S.S. Hegedus and B.E. McCandless, AIP Conf. Proc. 268, 206, (1992).

1992

“Polycrystalline Heterojunction Solar Cells: Processing Perspective,,” R.W. Birkmire, S.S. Hegedus, B.E. McCandless, J.E. Phillips, TWF Russell, W.N. Shafarman, S.Verma and S. Yamanaka, AIP Conf. Proc. 268, 212, (1992).

1992

“Effects of Processing on CdTe/CdS Materials and Devices,,” R. W. Birkmire, B.E. McCandless and S.S. Hegedus, Int?l J. Solar Energy 12, 145, (1992).

1992

“Midgap States in a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H p-i-n Solar Cells and Schottky Junctions by Capacitance Techniques,,” Steven S. Hegedus and E. A. Fagen, J. Appl. Phys. 71(12), 5941, (1992).

1992

“Characterization of a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H p-i-n and Schottky Junctions by Admittance Circuit Modeling,,” Steven S. Hegedus and Edward A. Fagen, IEEE Trans. on Elect. Dev. 39(10), 2368, (1992).

1991

“Analysis of Post Deposition Processing for CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells,,” Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Solar Cells 31, 527, (1991).

1991

“CuInSe2 for Photovoltaic Applications,,” A. Rockett and R.W. Birkmire, J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 81, (1991).

1991

“Advances in CuInSe2 and CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells,,” W.N. Shafarman, R.W. Birkmire, D.A. Fardig, B.E. McCandless, A. Mondal, J.E. Phillips and R.D. Varrin, Jr., Solar Cells 30, 61, (1991).

1991

“Energy and Environmental Concerns,,” T.W.F. Russell, Advances in Chemical Engineering 16, 293, (1991).

1991

“Critical Process Issues in Selenization,,” S. Verma, R.D. Varrin, Jr., R.W. Birkmire and T.W.F. Russell, Proc. 22nd IEEE PVSC, 914, (1991).

1991

“Charge-Defect Equilibrium Description of the Staebler-Wronski Defect Concentration and Formation Energy,” C.M. Fortmann, R.M. Dawson and C.R. Wronski, Symp. Proc. 219, 63, (1991).

1991

“Analytical Modeling of Thin Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Solar Cells,” C.M. Fortmann, Proc. 22nd IEEE PVSC, 1265, (1991).

1991

“Charge-Defect Equilibrium Description of Metastable Defect Concentrations,” C.M. Fortmann, R.M. Dawson, C.R. Wronski, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 137& 138, 207, (1991).

1991

“Influence of CdS Window Layers on Thin Film CdS/CdTe Solar Cell Performance,,” B.E. McCandless and S.S. Hegedus, Proc. 22nd IEEE PVSC, 967, (1991).

1991

“A New Method for Forming ZnTe Contacts for CdTe Cells,” Anup Mondal, Robert W. Birkmire and Brian E. McCandless, Proc. 22nd IEEE PVSC, 1126, (1991).

1991

“Diode Analysis of CuInSe2 Solar Cells,,” W.N. Shafarman and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 22nd IEEE PVSC, 934, (1991).

1991

“Characterization of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells,,” D.A. Fardig and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 22nd IEEE PVSC, 1146, (1991).

1991

“Hydrogen Content and the Goal of Stable Efficient Amorphous-silicon-based Solar Cells,” C.M. Fortmann, S.S. Hegedus, T.X. Zhou and B.N. Baron, Solar Cells 30, 255, (1991).

1990

“Photovoltaics and Electric Utilities: An Evaluation of Utility Attitudes and Expectations,,” Daniel Rich, Bill N. Baron, Craig McDonnell and Constantine Hajilambrinos, 9th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 661 (1990) and Solar Cells 29, 25, (1990).

1990

“Auger Line Shape and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Analysis of Amorphous, Microcrystalline, and ?SiC,,” A. J. Nelson, A. R. Mason, A. B. Swartzlander, L. L. Kazmerski, N. Saxena, C. M. Fortmann and T. W. F. Russell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8(3), 1538, (1990).

1990

“MercurySensitized Photochemical Vapor Deposition of Amorphous Silicon,,” D. E. Albright, N. Saxena, C. M. Fortmann, R. E. Rocheleau and T. W. F. Russell, AIChE Journal 36(10), 1555,, (1990).

1990

“Reactor Analysis of Copper Indium Selenization,,” R.D. Varrin, Jr., S. Verma, R.W. Birkmire, B.E. McCandless and T.W.F. Russell, Proc. 21st IEEE PVSC, 529, (1990).

1990

“Options for Fabrication and Design of CuInSe2 Based Solar Cells,,” R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman and R.D. Varrin, Jr., Proc. 21st IEEE PVSC, 550, (1990).

1990

“Effect of Oxidation-Reduction Heat Treatments on CuInSe2/CdS Device Behavior,,” M. Roy and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 21st IEEE PVSC, 743, (1990).

1990

“Determination of Diffusion Length with Bi-Facial Spectral Response,,” J.E. Phillips, Proc. 21st IEEE PVSC, 782, (1990).

1990

“a-SiGe:H Alloy Material Limitations and Device Considerations,” C.M. Fortmann, Proc. 21st IEEE PVSC, 1493, (1990).

1990

“Capacitance Studies of a-SiGe:H p-i-n Solar Cells,,” Steven S. Hegedus, Proc. 21st IEEE PVSC, 1544, (1990).

1990

“Deposition Condition, Hydrogen Content and the Staebler-Wronski Effect in Amorphous Silicon,” C.M. Fortmann and T. Zhou, Proc. 21st IEEE PVSC, 1648, (1990).

1990

“Steady-state Mobility-lifetimes and Photoconductivity in a-SiGe:H Thin Films,,” S.S. Hegedus and J.M. Cebulka, J. Appl. Phys. 67(8), 3885, (1990).

1990

“Prospects of a-SiGe:H Alloys for Solar Cell Application,” C.M. Fortmann, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 192, 27, (1990).

1980-1990 ARCHIVE
1980-1990 ARCHIVE
1989

“Midgap Defects in a-SiGe:H Devices from Capacitance Measurements,,” Steven S. Hegedus and Theodore X. Zhou, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 149, 533, (1989).

1989

“High Efficiency CuInSe2/(CdZn)S Solar Cells: Fabrication,” S. Damaskinos, J.E. Phillips, M. Roy and R.W. Birkmire, Canadian Journal of Physics 67(4), 420, (1989).

1989

“Stable High Efficiency Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells,,” B.N. Baron, C.M. Fortmann, S.S. Hegedus, W.A. Buchanan, D.E. Albright, N. Saxena and T.W.F. Russell, Proc. 9th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 56, (1989).

1989

“Approaches for High Efficiency CuInSe2 Solar Cells,,” R.W. Birkmire, B.E. McCandless, W.N. Shafarman and R.D. Varrin, Jr., Proc. 9th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 134, (1989).

1989

“Photovoltaics and Electric Utilities,” B. Baron, D. Rich, C. McDonnell, C. Hajilambrinos, Proc. 9th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 661, (1989).

1989

“TEM and AEM Study of Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe Heterojunction,” K. Jones, M. Al-Jassim, R.W. Birkmire, B.E. McCandless, Proc. Annual Mtg. Microscopy Society of America, 440, (1989).

1989

“Design Considerations for Low Band Gap a-SiGe:H Alloy Solar Cells,,” S.S. Hegedus, C.M. Fortmann and W.A. Buchanan, J. Non-Crystalline Solids 115, 21, (1989).

1989

“Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon from Disilane,,” R. J. Bogaert, T. W. F. Russell, M. T. Klein, R.E. Rocheleau and B. N. Baron, J. Electrochem. Soc. 136(10), 2960, (1989).

1989

“CuInSe2 and CdTe Solar Cells: Inexpensive Electric Power Generation,,” T. W. F. Russell, Proc. Fourth Int?l Symp. on Uses of Selenium and Tellurium,, (1989).

1989

“Effects of Hydrogen Radicals on the Composition and Hydrogen Bonding of Amorphous SiliconGermanium Thin Films,,” D.E. Albright, C.M. Fortmann and T.W.F. Russell, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. 149-VI, 521, (1989).

1989

“Microcrystallinity in aSi & aSiC Films Made by HgSensitized PhotoCVD,,” N. Saxena, C.M. Fortmann and T. W. F. Russell, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp Proc. 149-II, 99, (1989).

1989

“Temperature Dependence of H Radical Etching in the Deposition of Microcrystalline Silicon Alloy Thin Films by HgSensitized PhotoCVD,,” Neeraj Saxena, David E. Albright, C.M. Fortmann, T. W. Fraser Russell, Philippe M. Fauchet and Ian H. Campbell, J. NonCryst. Solids 114, 801, (1989).

1989

“Turning Point for Solar Energy,,” B.N. Baron, Univ. of DE Magazine, Fall 48, (1989).

1989

“Physical Vapor Deposition Reactors,,” T.W. Fraser Russell, Bill N. Baron, Scott C. Jackson and Richard E. Rocheleau, Advances in Chemistry Series No. 221, Microelectronics Processing: Chemical Engineering Aspects, Chapter 4, American Chemical Society, 171, (1989).

1989

“Post Processing Treatments and Contacts for Thin Film CdS/CdTe Devices,” Robert W. Birkmire, Brian E. McCandless, James E. Phillips, Proc. Polycrystalline Thin Film Meeting, 77, (1989).

1988

“The Open Circuit Voltage of Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Solar Cells,,” Steven S. Hegedus, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC, 102,, (1988).

1988

“Photo-assisted CVD of a-Si:H Solar Cells and a-SiGe:H Films,,” S. S. Hegedus, R.E. Rocheleau, R.M. Tullman, D.E. Albright, N. Saxena, W.A. Buchanan, K.E. Schubert and R. Dozier, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC, 129, (1988).

1988

“Defects in Amorphous Silicon Germanium Alloys,” C.M. Fortmann and J.C. Tu, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC, 139, (1988).

1988

“Characterization of Defects in a-Si:H Solar Cells Using Sub-band Gap Photocurrent Spectroscopy,,” Steven S. Hegedus and James M. Cebulka, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC, 186, (1988).

1988

“Fabrication of Monolithic a-Si:H – CuInSe2/CdS Tandem Solar Cells,,” B.E. McCandless, R.W. Birkmire, W.A. Buchanan, J.E. Phillips and R.E. Rocheleau,, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC, 381, (1988).

1988

“Shunt Diode Analysis Using Light Emission for Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Predictability,,” L.C. Kilmer, C. Honsberg, J.E. Phillips and A.M. Barnett,, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC, 785, (1988).

1988

“Polycrystalline CdTe on CuInSe2 Cascaded Solar Cells,,” P.V. Meyers, C.H. Liu, L. Russell, V. Ramanathan, R.W. Birkmire, B.E. McCandless and J.E. Phillips,, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC, 1448, (1988).

1988

“Control of Deposition and Surface Properties of CuInSe2 Thin Films for Solar Cells,,” Brian E. McCandless and Robert W. Birkmire, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC, 1510, (1988).

1988

“Characterization of Window Layers in CuInSe2 Thin Film Solar Cells,,” W.N. Shafarman and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC 2, 1515, (1988).

1988

“Characterization of CuInSe2 Single Crystals for Solar Cell Modeling Studies,,” F.A. Abou-Elfotouh, L.L. Kazmerski, T.J. Coutts, D.J. Dunlavy, M. Almassari, S. Chaudhuri and R. W. Birkmire, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC, 1520, (1988).

1988

“Resistive and Photoconductive Effects in Spectral Response Measurements,” J.E. Phillips and M. Roy, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC 2, 1614, (1988).

1988

“The Diode Current Mechanism in CuInSe2/(CdZn)S Heterojunctions,,” M. Roy, S. Damaskinos and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 20th IEEE PVSC 2, 1618,, (1988).

1988

“Specular CuInSe2 Films for Solar Cells,,” R.W. Birkmire and B.E. McCandless, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(2), 140, (1988).

1988

“CdTe/CdS Solar Cells with Transparent Contacts,,” R.W. Birkmire, B.E. McCandless and W.N. Shafarman, Solar Cells 23(1-2), 115, (1988).

1988

“The Relation of Dark and Illuminated Diode Parameters to the Open-circuit Voltage of Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Solar Cells,,” Steven S. Hegedus, Neil Salzman and Edward Fagen, J. Appl. Phys. 63(10), 5126, (1988).

1988

“Light-induced Degradation in Undoped Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films Studied by the Surface Photovoltage Technique: A Comparison of Lifetime Versus Space-charge Effects,,” Steven S. Hegedus, Hong-sheng Lin and A.R. Moore, J. Appl. Phys. 64(3), 1215, (1988).

1988

“Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Deposited by Photo-CVD: Effect of Hydrogen Dilution and Substrate Temperature,” R.E. Rocheleau, R.M. Tullman, D.E. Albright and S.S. Hegedus, MRS Symp. Proc. 118, 653, (1988).

1987

“The Determination of Diffusion Length and Surface Barrier Width from Surface Photovoltage Measurements in CdSe and Amorphous Si Films,” A. R. Moore and Hong-Sheng Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 61(12), 5366, (1987).

1987

“Improvement in the Surface Photovoltage Method of Determining Diffusion Length in Thin Films of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,” A.R. Moore and Hong-Sheng Lin, J. Appl. Phys. 61(10), 4816, (1987).

1987

“A Chemical Reaction Model for Physical Vapor Deposition of Compound Semiconductor Films,” S.C. Jackson, B.N. Baron, R.E. Rocheleau and T.W.F. Russell, AIChE Journal 33(5), 711, (1987).

1987

“Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zinc Phosphide Thin Films,,” E. Papazoglou and T.W.F. Russell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5(6), 3378, May, (1987).

1987

“Laboratory Safety Procedures for Processing II-VII and Related Compounds for Thin Film Photovoltaics,,” Steven S. Hegedus, J.D. Meakin, B.N. Baron and J.A. Miller, Solar Cells 19, 225, (1987).

1987

“Measurement of the Built-in Potential in Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Solar Cells,,” Steven S. Hegedus, Martin Schmidt and Neil Salzman, Proc. 19th IEEE PVSC, 210, (1987).

1987

“Tolerance of CuInSe2 Cell Performance to Variations in Film Composition and the Implications for Large Area Cell Manufacture,,” R.E. Rocheleau, J.D. Meakin and R.W. Birkmire, Proc. 19th IEEE PVSC, 972, (1987).

1987

“Analysis of a Transparent Cu/ITO Contact and Heat Treatments on CdTe/CdS Solar Cells,,” R.W. Birkmire, S.S. Hegedus, B.E. McCandless, J.E. Phillips and W.N. Shafarman, Proc. 19th IEEE PVSC, 967, (1987).

1987

“Novel Photochemical Vapor Deposition Reactor for Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Deposition,,” Richard E. Rocheleau, Steven S. Hegedus, Wayne A. Buchanan and Scott C. Jackson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(2), 133, (1987).

1987

“Performance and Analysis of Amorphous Silicon p-i-n Solar Cells Made by Chemical-vapor Deposition from Disilane,,” Steven S. Hegedus, R.E. Rocheleau, W. Buchanan and B.N. Baron, J. Appl. Phys. 61(1), 381, (1987).

1987

“Effects of Impurities on Film Quality and Device Performance in a-Si:H Deposited by Photo-Assisted CVD,,” Richard E. Rocheleau, Steven S. Hegedus, Wayne Buchanan and Robert Tullman, Proc. 19th IEEE PVSC, 699, (1987).

1987

“Low Bandgap Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Alloys for Thin Film Solar Cells Using a Novel Photo-CVD Reactor,,” Steven S. Hegedus, R.M. Tullman, H.S. Lin, J.M. Cebulka, W.A. Buchanan, R. Dozier and R.E. Rocheleau, Proc. 19th IEEE PVSC, 867, (1987).

1987

“Light Emission as a Stability Predictor for GaAs Solar Cells,,” J.E. Phillips, C. Honsberg and A.M. Barnett, Proc. 19th IEEE PVSC, 1150, (1987).

1987

“Interpretation of an Oxidation/Reduction Experiment on High Efficiency CuInSe2/CdS Devices,,” Savvas Damaskinos, John D. Meakin and James E. Phillips, Proc. 19th IEEE PVSC, 1299, (1987).

1986

“Gas Chromatographic Determination of Silanes,” R.J. Bogaert, R.E. Rocheleau and B.N. Baron, J. Chromatographic Science 24, 109, (1986).

1986

“Thin Film Tandem Solar Cells Based on CuInSe2,,” J.D. Meakin, R.W. Birkmire, L.C. DiNetta, P.G. Lasswell and J.E. Phillips, Solar Cells 16, 447, (1986).

1986

“High Efficiency CuInSe2 Based Heterojunction Solar Cells: Fabrication and Results,,” R.W. Birkmire, L.C. DiNetta, P.G. Lasswell, J.D. Meakin and J.E. Phillips, Solar Cells 16, 419, (1986).

1986

“Quantum Efficiency of Amorphous Alloy Solar Cells,,” V.L. Dalal, M. Leonard, J. Booker, A. Vaseashta and S. Hegedus, Proc. 18th IEEE PVSC, 837, (1986).

1986

“Electronic and Optical Properties of a-(SiGe):H Alloys,” V. Dalal, M. Leonard, J. Booker and S.S. Hegedus, Proc. 18th IEEE PVSC, 1500, (1986).

1986

“Properties of a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H Films Deposited from Photo-Assisted CVD,,” R. Rocheleau, S. Jackson, S.S. Hegedus and B. Baron, Symp. Proc. 70, 37, (1986).

1986

“Density of Midgap States and Urbach Edge in Chemically Vapor Deposited Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films,,” Steven S. Hegedus, R. E. Rocheleau, J.M. Cebulka and B.N. Baron, J. Appl. Phys. 60(3), 1046, (1986).

1986

“Surface Photovoltage Measurement of Light Instability of Amorphous Silicon Films,” K.A. Epstein, N.T. Tran, F.R. Jeffrey, A.R. Moore, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 173, (1986).

1985

“Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations,,” T.W.F. Russell, Chemical Engineering Education, ASEE, Spring, 72, (1985).

1985

“Molecular Beam Distributions from High Rate Sources,,” S.C. Jackson, B.N. Baron, R.E. Rocheleau and T.W.F. Russell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3(5), 1916, (1985).

1985

“Properties of Intrinsic a-Si Films Deposited from Higher Order Silanes by CVD,,” R.E. Rocheleau, S.S. Hegedus and B.N. Baron, Symp. Proc. 49, 15, (1985).

1985

“Thin-Film Tandem Solar Cells Based on CuInSe2,” R.W. Birkmire, J.E. Phillips, L.C. DiNetta, J.D. Meakin, Proc. 6th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 270, (1985).

1985

“The Effects of Air Heat Treatments on Completed CdS/CdTe Solar Cells,,” B.E. McCandless, R.W. Birkmire and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 6th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 826, (1985).

1985

“CdTe/CdS Devices for Tandem Solar Cells Based on CuInSe2,,” R.W. Birkmire, L.C. DiNetta, S.C. Jackson, P.G. Lasswell, B.E. McCandless, J.D. Meakin and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 18th IEEE PVSC, 1413, (1985).

1985

“Thin-Film Tandem Solar Cells,,” J.E. Phillips, R.W. Birkmire, L.C. DiNetta, J.D. Meakin, Proc. 166th Electrochem. Soc. Mtg. 85(9), 163, (1985).

1985

“Determination of the Absorption Coefficient of a Real Semiconductor Film: Application to ZnSe,” J. M. Pawlikowski, Thin Solid Films 125, 213, (1985).

1985

“Status of CuInSe2 Solar Cells,” John D. Meakin, SPIE 543, 108, (1985).

1985

“Optical Band Gap of Cd3P2-Zn3P2 Semiconductor Solid Solutions,” J. M. Pawlikowski, J. Phys. C.: Solid State Phys. 18, 5604, (1985).

1985

“Preparation and Characterization of Close-spaced Vapour Transport Thin Films of ZnSe for Heterojunction Solar Cells,” J. M. Pawlikowski, Thin Solid Films 127, 9, (1985).

1985

“Absorptivity and Photoluminescence of Compensated ZnSe:Ga,” J.M. Pawkikowski, Solid State Communications 55(1), 31, (1985).

1984

“CVD Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells,,” S.S. Hegedus, R.E. Rocheleau and B.N. Baron, Proc. 17th IEEE PVSC, 239, (1984).

1984

“Material Requirements for High Efficiency CuInSe2/CdS Solar Cells,,” R.W. Birkmire, R.B. Hall and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 17th IEEE PVSC, 882, (1984).

1984

“Origin of Defects in CdS Films Associated with Degradation of Cu2S/CdS Solar Cells,,” S.P. Shea, R.W. Birkmire and J.D. Meakin, Proc. 17th IEEE PVSC, 1270, (1984).

1984

“CuInSe2/CdS-CdTe/CdS Polycrystalline Tandem Solar Cells,,” R.W. Birkmire, L.C. DiNetta, J.D. Meakin and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 17th IEEE PVSC, 1406, (1984).

1984

“The Development of Photovoltaic Materials,” John D. Meakin, Solar Cells 12, 151, (1984).

1984

“The Photoresponse of CdS/CuInSe2 Thin-Film Heterojunction Solar Cells,,” Steven S. Hegedus, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices Ed. 31, 629, (1984).

1984

“Transport Properties of LPCVD a-Si:H Solar Cells,,” S.S. Hegedus, J. Noncryst. Sol. 66, 369, (1984).

1984

“Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells,,” T.W.F. Russell and J.E. Phillips, Solar Cells 12, 185, (1984).

1984

“Chemical Reaction Engineering in Photovoltaic Cell Processing,,” T.W.F. Russell, 1. Chem. E. Symp. Series 87, 271, (1984).

1984

“Economics of Processing Thinfilm Solar Cells,,” T.W.F. Russell, B.N. Baron and R.E. Rocheleau, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 2(4), 840, (1984).

1984

“Intensity Dependence of Diffusion Length in Amorphous Silicon by Surface Photovoltage Measurements,” A.R. Moore, D.E. Kane, J. Appl. Phys. 56(10), 2796, (1984).

1984

“Polycrystalline Semiconductor Heterojunction Modeling (CdS/CuInSe2),” Karl W. Böer, SERI Contract RL 4040401, Quarterly Technical Status Report, March – June, (1984).

1984

“Quantum Efficiency of Internal Photoeffects in Narrow-gap Semiconductors. II. Calculation Results in Comparison with Experimental Data,” Pawel Scharoch and Janusz M. Pawikowski, J. Appl. Phys. 55(6), 1487, (1984).

1983

“The Effect of Crystal Size on the Thermal Energy Storage Capacity of Thickened Glauber?s Salt,” Stephen B. Marks, Solar Energy 30(1), 45, (1983).

1983

“Fermi-level Position and Density of States on Intrinsic, Phosphorous-doped and Boron-doped a-Si:H Deposited on Stainless Steel,” Paul Nielsen and Robert Gredin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1(2), 583, (1983).

1983

“Junction Geometry in Cu2S / CdS or Cu2S / Cd1-XZnXS Solar Cells Prepared by the Solution Reaction Method,” E. Eser, Solar Cells 8(2), 157, (1983).

1983

“Analysis of the Rate of Vaporization of CuCl for Solar Cell Fabrication,,” D.F. Brestovansky, B.N. Baron, R.E. Rocheleau and T.W.F. Russell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1(1), 28, (1983).

1983

“ThinFilm Photovoltaic Systems,” T.W.F. Russell, Proc. DOE Annual PV Program Review, 73, (1983).

1983

“LargeScale Production Processes,,” T.W.F. Russell, Proc. DOE Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development 5th Annual Review Meeting, 107, (1983).

1983

“Commercial Scale Processing Potential for ThinFilm Photovoltaic Systems,,” T.W.F. Russell, B.N. Baron and R.E. Rocheleau, Proc. 5th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 835, (1983).

1983

“LPCVD a-Si from Disilane,” B.N. Baron, R.J. Bogaert and R.E. Rocheleau, Proc. 5th SERI Annual Advanced Photovoltaics R&D Review, Denver, CO. SERI Publication No. SERI/CP-311-2011, 63, (1983).

1983

“Solar Cells: Direct Conversion of Solar Energy to Electricity,” J.D. Meakin, (1983).

1983

“Zinc Phosphide for Solar Cell Applications,” Manjul Bhushan, Janusz M. Pawlikowski, Ines Pereyra, Electrochemical Society, 97, (1983).

1983

“Chemical Vapor Deposition of Amorphous Silicon for Photovoltaic Solar Cells,,” R.E. Rocheleau, R.J. Bogaert, B.N. Baron and M.T. Klein, Symp. on Chemical Reaction Engineering in Semiconductor and Photovoltaic Processing, Div. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 186th National Meeting of American Chemical Society, (1983).

1982

“Properties of Zinc Phosphide/Zinc Oxide Heterojunctions,” P.S. Nayar, J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 1069, (1982).

1982

“Interfacial Electronic Structure and Density of States of Intrinsic a-Si:H Deposited on Clean and Oxidized Stainless Steel,” Paul Nielsen, Robert Gredin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(6), 479, (1982).

1982

“Absorption Edge of Zn3P2,,” Janusz M. Pawlikowski, Phys. Rev. B 26(8), 4711, (1982).

1982

“An Assessment of the Commercial Photovoltaics Measurements Workshop,,” J.D. Meakin, Solar Cells 7, 47, (1982).

1982

“Apparatus Surface Conditioning Effects in Copper Sulfide Reactive Sputtering for Photovoltaic Applications,,” L.C. DiNetta, D.G. Cornog, R.B. Hall and J.A. Thornton, J. Vac. Science Tech. 20, 296, (1982).

1982

“Comments on Zn3P2 Band Structure,” Janusz M. Pawlikowski, J. Appl. Phys. 53(5), 3639, (1982).

1982

“Continuous Deposition of Photovoltaic-Grade CdS Sheet at the Unit Operations Scale,,” R.E. Rocheleau, P.J. Lutz, D.F. Brestovansky, B.N. Baron and T.W.F. Russell, Proc. 4th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 798, (1982).

1982

“Designing Gas-Sparged Vessels for Mass Transfer,” T.W.F. Russell and J.N. Tilton, Chemical Engineering, 61, (1982).

1982

“Fabrication and Characterization of Stable High Efficiency (Cd,Zn)S/Cu2S Solar Cells,” Karl H. Noian and Robert B. Hall, Thin Solid Films 88, 55, (1982).

1982

“High Efficiency Photo-Generation Processes,” J.M. Pawlikowski, Proc. 3rd Symp. on Materials and New Processing Technologies for Photovoltaics 82.8, 218, (1982).

1982

“Intraband and Interband Optical Transitions in Zn3As2,” J.M. Pawlikowski, B. Sujak-Cyrul, B. Kolodka and J. Misiewica, J. Phys .and Chemistry of Solids 43.11, 1045, (1982).

1982

“Mg Diffused Zinc Phosphide n/p Junctions,,” M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 514, (1982).

1982

“Optical Transitions in Zn3As2 Thin Films and Single Crystals,” J.M. Pawlikowski, B. Kolodka and J. Misiewicz, Acta Physica Polonica A62, 63, (1982).

1982

“Quantum Efficiency of Internal Photoeffects in Narrow-gap Semiconductors: A model,” Pawel Scharoch, Jan Szatkowski and Janusz M. Pawlikowski, J. Appl. Phys. 53(8), 5710, (1982).

1982

“Schottky Solar Cells on Thin Polycrystalline Zn3P2 Films,,” M. Bhushan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(1), 51, (1982).

1982

“Zn3P2 Thin-Film Solar Cells,,” M. Bhushan, Proc. 4th Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 844, (1982).

1982

“Stability of Thin-Film Cu2S-Based Solar Cells at Voc Under Continuous Illumination,,” James E. Phillips, Robert W. Birkmire and Patrick G. Lasswell, Proc. 16th IEEE PVSC, 719, (1982).

1982

“Copper Sulfide/Cadmium Sulfide Heterojunction Cell Research by Sputter Deposition,” John A. Thornton, David G. Cornog, W. W. Anderson, R.B. Hall and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 16th IEEE PVSC, 737, (1982).

1982

“Properties of Continuously Deposited PhotovoltaicGrade CdS,,” T.W.F. Russell, R.E. Rocheleau, P.J. Lutz, D.F. Brestovansky and B. N. Baron, Proc.16th IEEE PVSC, 743, (1982).

1982

“Analysis of Evaporation of Cadmium Sulfide for Manufacture of Solar Cells,,” R.E. Rocheleau, B.N. Baron and T.W.F. Russell, AIChE Journal 24(4), 656, (1982).

1982

“Photovoltaic Unit Operations,,” T.W.F. Russell, CHEMTECH 12, 540, (1982).

1982

“Depth Dependence of Trapped Holes in Thin-film CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells Determined from Photo Induced Transient Capacitance,” W.J. Manthey, J. Appl. Phys. 53(6), 4255, (1982).

1982

“Effects of Oxidation-Reduction Heat Treatments on the Optical Absorption in Cu2-xS,” E Eser and J. A. Cambridge, Solar Cells 5, 343, (1982).

1981

“A Device-oriented Materials Study of CdS and Cu2S Films in Solar Cells,” K. H. Norian and J. W. Edington, Thin Solid Films 75(1), 53, (1981).

1981

“Analysis of Conductivity and Thermoelectric Power Measurements of Amorphous Semiconductors,” P. Nielsen, AIP Conf. Proc. 73, 181, (1981).

1981

“The Potential for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells,” T.W.Fraser Russell and Vikram L. Dalal, IEEE Transactions on Education E-24(3), 239, (1981).

1981

“Photovoltaic Cells,” T.W.F. Russell and V.L. Dalal, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Education E-24(3), 239, (1981).

1981

“Analysis of Conductivity and Thermoelectric Power Measurements of Amorphous Semiconductors,” P. Nielsen, AIP Conf. Proc. 73, 181, (1981).

1981

“Anti-reflection Coatings for Thin-film Polycrystalline CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells,” J.A. Bragagnolo and L.C. DiNetta, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18(2), 364, (1981).

1981

“A Brighter Look for Energy Management,” M.D. Stallings and J.L. Rykiel, I Museum News 59(4), 34, (1981).

1981

“The Delaware Consumer’s Guide to Solar Hot Water,” J.L. Rykiel, Newark, DE: Delaware Energy Office, (1981).

1981

“Energy Center Profile,” P. Blythe, Energy Review 8(3), 92, (1981).

1981

“An Energy Management Program for Cultural Institutions,” M.D. Stallings and J.L. Rykiel, Technology and Conservation 5(4), 48, (1981).

1981

“F-Etched a-Si Films,,” Vikram L. Dalal, Charles L. Fortmann and Erten Eser, AIP Conf. Proc., 15, (1981).

1981

“Grain Structure of CdS and Cd1-xZnxS Films,” E. Eser and R.B. Hall, Thin Solid Films 86, 31, (1981).

1981

“Heterojunction Energy Band Lineups in Cd1-xZnxS/Cu2S Solar Cells,” R.B. Hall, A. Rothwarf and R. Bennaceur, 3rd Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 793, (1981).

1981

“Interface Reactions in Mg/Zn3P2 Solar Cells,” L.L. Kazmerski, P.J. Ireland and A. Catalano, Proc. 15th IEEE PVSC, 1261, (1981).

1981

“Laser Scanning of Ungridded Solar Cell Material,” P. Lasswell and B.C. Plunkett, Proc. 15th IEEE PVSC, 1021, (1981).

1981

“Minority Carrier Transport in Depletion Layers of nip a-Si:H Solar Cells,” Vikram Dalal and Fernando Alvarez, Proc. 9th Int?l Conf. on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, 9, (1981).

1981

“The Need for Photovoltaic Unit Operations Experimentation,” T.W.F. Russell, B.N. Baron and R.E. Rocheleau, Proc. 3rd Euro. PV Solar Energy Conf., 348, (1981).

1981

“Photoluminescence and Optical Absorption of Mg3P2,” A. Catalano, Thin Solid Films 83, 141, (1981).

1981

“A Pinhole Model for Metal Insulator Semiconductor Solar Cells,” I. Pereyra and A. Rothwarf, Solid-State Electron. 24(11), 1067, (1981).

1981

“Polycrystalline Zn3P2 Schottky Barrier Solar Cells,” M. Bhushan and A. Catalano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(1), 39, (1981).

1981

“Surface and Interface Properties of Zn3P2 Solar Cells,” L.L. Kazmerski, P.J. Ireland and A. Catalano, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18(2), 368, (1981).

1981

“Thin-film Polycrystalline (CdZn)S/Cu2S Solar Cells of Ten Percent Conversion Efficiency,” R.W. Birkmire, R.B. Hall, J.E. Phillips, J.D. Meakin, Proc. 3rd Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 1094, (1981).

1981

“Thin-film Polycrystalline Cu2S/Cd1-xZnxS Solar Cells of 10% Eficiency,” R.B. Hall, R.W. Birkmire, J.E. Phillips and J.D. Meakin, Appl. Phys. Lett 38(1), 925, (1981).

1981

“Thin-film Solar Cell Research Progresses,” Paul Blythe, Jr., Solar Engineering Magazine 6(4), 12, (1981).

1981

“Zinc Phosphide Thin Film Solar Cells,” M. Bhushan and A. Catalano, Proc. 15th IEEE PVSC, 1216, (1981).

1981

“Zinc Phosphide/Zinc Oxide Heterojunction Solar Cells,” P.S. Nayar and A. Catalano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39(1), 105, (1981).

1981

“CommercialScale Process Design for ThinFilm Solar Cells,” T.W.F. Russell, B.N. Baron and R.E. Rocheleau, AIChE Symp. Series: Fundamentals and Applications of Solar Energy Part II, 70, (1981).

1981

“10% Conversion Efficiency in Thin Film Polycrystalline (CdZn)S/Cu2S Solar Cells,” R.B. Hall, R.W. Birkmire, J.E. Phillips and J.D. Meakin, Proc. 15th IEEE PVSC, 777, (1981).

1981

“Effects of Oxidation-Reduction Heat Treatments on the Optical Absorption in Cu2-XS,” E. Eser, J.A. Cambridge, Solar Cells 5, 343, (1981).

1981

“Energy and Atomic Number Dependence of Electron Depth-Dose and Lateral-Dose Functions,” Stephen P. Shea, Electron Beam Interactions with Solids, 145, (1981).

1981

“Research and Development,” John D. Meakin, Proc. SERI Sponsored Workshop on Stability of Thin Film Solar cells Based on CdS, 23, (1981).

1981

“Long-Term Changes in the Shape of JV Characteristics,” Karl W. Boer, Proc. SERI Sponsored Workshop on Stability of Thin Film Solar cells Based on CdS, 25, (1981).

1981

“Intrinsic Stability of Cu2S Based Solar Cells,” R.W. Birkmire and J.E. Phillips, Proc. SERI-sponsored Workshop on Stability of Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on CdS, 51, (1981).

1980

“Low Cost Thin-Film CdS-Based Solar Cells: Progress and Promise,” Allen M. Barnett and John D. Meakin, J. Solar Energy Engineering 102, 80, (1980).

1980

“The Design and Fabrication of Thin-Film CdS/Cu2S Cells of 9.15- Percent Conversion Efficiency,” Julio A. Bragagnollo, Allen M. Barnett, James E. Phillips, Robert B. Hall, Allen Rothwarf and John D. Meakin, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, ED-27(4), 645, (1980).

1980

“Plasma Characterization in Sputtering Processes Using the Langmuir Probe Technique,” E. Eser, R.E. Ogilvie, K.A. Taylor, Thin Solid Films 68, 381, (1980).

1980

“Analysis of Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells,” Vikram L. Dalal, Solar Cells 2, 261, (1980).

1980

“Barrier Heights of Evaporated Metal Contacts on Zn3P2,” N. Convers Wyeth and A. Catalano, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2286, (1980).

1980

“Calorimetric Testing of Improved Glauber’s Salt Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Material,” Stephen B. Marks, Proc. of Condensed Papers of 3rd Miami Int?l Conf. on Alternative Energy Sources, 44, (1980).

1980

“Capacitance as a Tool for Investigating Thin Film CdS/Cu2S Heterojunctions,,” W.J. Manthey and N. Convers Wyeth, Solar Cells 1, 321, (1980).

1980

“Defect Dominated Conductivity in Zn3P2,,” A. Catalano and R.B. Hall, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 41, 635, (1980).

1980

“Design Considerations for a-Si Solar Cells,” Vikram L. Dalal, IEEE Tran. Electron Devices ED-27(4), 662, (1980).

1980

“Thin-Film Solar Cells : A Unified Analysis of Their Potential,” Allen M. Barnett and Allen Rothwarf, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, (1980).

1980

“Design of Monolithic, Multiple-Gap Amorphous Si-Ge Solar Cells,,” V.L. Dalal and E.A. Fagen, Proc. 14th IEEE PVSC, 1066, (1980).

1980

“The Effect of Bias on d.c. and r.f. Sputtered WC-Co Coatings,” E. Eser, R.E. Ogilvie and K.A. Taylor, Thin Solid Films 67(2), 265, (1980).

1980

“Estimating Undergraduate Student Capacity for an Engineering Department,” T.W.F. Russell, R.L. Daughterty and A.F. Graziano, Insights Into Engineering Education Administration, Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education, (1980).

1980

“Evidence of Defect Dominated Conductivity in Zn3P2,,” A. Catalano and R.B. Hall, Proc. 9th Int?l Symp. on the Reactivity of Solids, (1980).

1980

“Experimental Determination of the Photon Economy in Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaic Materials and Devices,” J.A. Bragagnolo and E.A. Fagen, Solar Cells 1, 275, (1980).

1980

“The Growth of Large Zn3P2 Crystals by Vapor Transport,,” A. Catalano, J. Crys. Growth 49, 681, (1980).

1980

“An Investigation of the Thermal Energy Storage Capacity of Glauber’s Salt With Respect to Thermal Cycling,” S.B. Marks, Solar Energy 25, 255, (1980).

1980

“Kramers-Kronig Analysis for Zn3P2,” J.M. Pawlikowski, J. Misiewicz and K. Jezierski, Proc. 1st Int?l Symp. Physics and Chemistry of II-V Compounds, 193, (1980).

1980

“Laser Scanning of Experimental Solar Cells,” P.G. Lasswell and B.C. Plunkett, Proc. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Conf. on Role of Electro-Optics in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 248, 142, (1980).

1980

“Load Leveling Versus Load Shifting Applied to Air Conditioning Using Phase Change Thermal Storage Materials,” M. Lang, Proc. Condensed Papers of 3rd Miami Int?l Conf. on Alternative Energy Sources, 41, (1980).

1980

“A LowCost Manufacturing Process for ThinFilm Solar Cells,” T. W. F. Russell, A. M. Barnett, B. N. Baron, J. V. Masi and R. E. Rocheleau, Proc. 14th IEEE PVSC, 354, (1980).

1980

“Thin Polycrystalline Zn3P2 Films for Photovoltaic Solar Cells,” A. Catalano, M. Bhushan and N. Convers Wyeth, Proc. 14th IEEE PVSC, 641, (1980).

1980

“Growth and Evaluation of CdS and (CdZn)S Films for the Fabrication of High Performance Photovoltaic Devices,” R.B. Hall, R.W. Birkmire, E. Eser, T.L. Hench and J.D. Meakin, Proc. 14th IEEE PVSC, 706, (1980).

1980

“Optical Absorption Coefficient Changes in Cu2S as the Cause of Short Circuit Current Changes in Cu2S/CdS Solar Cells,” Allen Rothwarf and Hasson Windawi, Proc. 14th IEEE PVSC, 722, (1980).

1980

“CurrentVoltage Analysis of the Cu2S/CdS Solar Cell with the Interdigitated Grid,” James E. Phillips, Proc. 14th IEEE PVSC, 734, (1980).

1980

“Thin-Film CdS/Cu2S Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage and Low Reflection Losses,” Julio A. Bragagnolo, Robert W. Birkmire and James E. Phillips, Proc. 14th IEEE PVSC, 1400, (1980).

1980

“P-N Junction Formation in Zn3P2,” A.W. Catalano and M. Bhushan, Proc. 1st Int?l Symp. on Phys. and Chemistry of II-V Compounds, 169, (1980).

1980

“Thermal Energy Storage Using Glauber’s Salt: Improved Storage Capacity With Thermal Cycling,” Stephen Marks, Proc. 15th Intersociety Energy Conversion Eng. Conf. 1, 259, (1980).

1980

“Themoelectric Power and Conductivity of As-doped a-Si:H:F,” Paul Nielsen and V.L. Dalal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(12), 1090, (1980).

1980

“Thin Film Photovoltaic Devices,” J.D. Meakin, A. Rothwarf and A.M. Barnett, In Polycrystalline and Amorphous Thin Film Devices 8, 230, (1980).

1980

“Utilization of Cadmium in Solar Cells,” J.D. Meakin, Proc. 2nd Int?l Cadmium Conf., 40, (1980).

1980

“Zn3P2 Homojunction Devices,” A.W. Catalano and M. Bhushan, Proc. 1st Int?l Symp. on Phys. and Chemistry of II-V Compounds, (1980).

1980

“Evidence of p/n Homojunction Formation in Zn3P2,” A. Catalano and M. Bhushan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 567, (1980).

1980

“The 14N (d,p5) 15N Cross Section 0.32-1.45 meV,” A. Niiler and R.W. Birkmire, Nuclear Instruments and Methods 168, 105, (1980).

1980

“Thin-Film Polycrystalline (CdZn)S/Cu2S Solar Cells of 10% Conversion Efficiency,” R.B. Hall, R.W. Birkmire, J.E. Phillips and J.D. Meakin, Proc. 3rd Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 1094, (1980).

1980

“The Need for Photovoltaic Unit Operations Experimentation,” T.W.F. Russell, B. N. Baron and R.E. Rocheleau, Proc. 3rd Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 348, (1980).

1980

“Applying Microeconomics to Process Design,” T. W. Fraser Russell and Ricardo J. Bogaert, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 19, 282, (1980).

1980

“Technology Considerations for Thin Solar Cells,” Vikram L. Dalal, Bill N. Baron and T.W.F. Russell, Proc.1980 Annual Meeting American Section of Int?l Solar Energy Society 3.2, 981, (1980).

1980

“Thermoelectric Power and Conductivity of As-doped a-Si:H:F,” P. Nielsen and V.L. Dalal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(12), 1090, (1980).

1980

“Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?,” Stephen Marks, (1980).

1980

“Capacitance as a Tool for Investigating Thin-Film CdS/Cu2S Heterojunctions,” W.J. Manthey and N.C. Wyeth, Solar Cells 1, 321, (1980).

1980

“Thermal Energy Storage Using Glauber?s Salt: Improved Storage Capacity with Thermal Cycling,” S.B. Marks, Proc. 15th IEC EC, (1980).

1980

“Thin-Film Solar Cells, A Unified Analysis of Their Potential,” AM Barnett, A. Rothwarf, (1980).

1980

“The CdS/Cu2S Solar Cell: Basic Operation and Anomalous Effects,” Allen Rothwarf, Solar Cells 2(2), 115, (1980).

1980

“Some Thermally Stimulated Current Spectra from CdSe Thin Film Transistors,” K. H. Norian, Thin Solid Films 74(2), 179, (1980).

1980

“Photovoltaics,” L. C. Burton, Physics and Contemporary Needs 4, 213, (1980).

1970-1980 ARCHIVE
1970-1980 ARCHIVE
1979

“Storage Assisted Air Conditioning,” Joseph Sliwkowski, (1979).

1979

“Storage Assisted Air Conditioning Using a New Low-Cost Phase-Change Material Packaging Concept,” Allen M. Barnett and Galen R. Frysinger, Conf. On Peak Load Pricing & Thermal Energy Storage, (1979).

1979

“Appraisal of Thin-Film Solar Cells,” Allen M. Barnett, Proc. 2nd Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 328, (1979).

1979

“CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells,” J.A. Bragagnolo and J.D. Meakin, Proc. Symp. Applied to Solar Energy Systems, (1979).

1979

“Measurements of Interface Recombination Velocity by Capacitance/collection Efficiency Variation in Cu2S/CdS Heterojunctions,” N. Convers Wyeth and A. Rothwarf, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(5), 1402, (1979).

1979

“The Design and Fabrication of CdS/Cu2S Cells of 8.5-Percent Conversion Efficiency,” Walter E. Devaney, Allen M. Barnett, George M. Storti and John D. Meakin, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 26(3), 205, (1979).

1979

“Optical Properties of Zn3P2,” E.A. Fagen, J. Appl. Phys. 50(10), 6505, (1979).

1979

“Optimal Material Properties for CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells,,” Allen Rothwarf, Proc. 2nd Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 379, (1979).

1979

“The Structure of the Chemical Processing Industries,” T.W.F. Russell, Chemical Engineering Education 13(3), 194, (1979).

1979

“Testing Process Designs by Their Simulated Performance in the Marketplace,,” T.W.F. Russell, Proc. 12th Symp. Computer Applications in Chemical Eng’g., 783, (1979).

1979

“Photon Loss Analysis and Design of Thin-Film Planar Junction Cu2S/CdS Devices,” J.A. Bragagnolo, Proc. 2nd Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 882, (1979).

1979

“Schottky Barrier Grid Devices on Zn3P2,” A.W. Catalano, J.V. Masi and N.C. Wyeth, Proc. 2nd Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 440, (1979).

1979

“Spectral Response Measurements of Minority Carrier Diffusion Length in Zn3P2,” N. Convers Wyeth and A. Catalano, J. Appl. Phys. 50(3), 1403, (1979).

1979

“Energy: Adjusting to the Crisis,” V.L. Dalal and M.D. Stallings, Consumer Economics, by J.P. Newton, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, (1979).

1979

“Comment onA simple Measurement of Absolute Solar Cell Efficiency,” Vikram L. Dalal and Allen Rothwarf, J. Appl. Phys. 50(4), 2980, (1979).

1979

“Modeling of a Thermal Wall Panel Using Phase Change Materials,” S. Guceri and S. F. Faunce, Energy: The Int?l Journal, 4, (1979).

1979

“The Design and Fabrication of High-efficiency Thin CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells,” R.B. Hall and J.D. Meakin, Thin Solid Films 63, 203, (1979).

1979

“Analysis of Capacitance-voltage Measurements on Heat-treated Cu2-xS/CdS Heterojunctions,” R.B. Hall and V.P. Singh, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6406, (1979).

1979

“Thin Film (CdZn)S for Solar Cells,” R.B. Hall and T.L.Hench, Proc. 2nd Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 379, (1979).

1979

“Single-thermal-source Formation of ZnxCd1-xS Thin Films,” T.L. Hench, L.C. Burton and J.D. Meakin, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6014, (1979).

1979

“Structural and Chemical Characterization of Photovoltaic Materials and Devices,” John D. Meakin, Proc. PV Mat. & Dev. Measurement Workshop,, (1979).

1979

“Interface Recombination and Junction Field Studies in the Cu2S/CdS Solar Cell,” L.M. Kilgren, Proc. 2nd Euro. Communities PV Solar Energy Conf., 344, (1979).

1979

“The Design and Utilization of Microprocessor-controlled Absolute Spectral Response System,” L.M. Kilgren, N.C. Wyeth and W.E. Devaney, Solar Cells 1, 2, (1979).

1979

“Improvements in the Performance of a Low Cost Thin Film Solar Cell,” John D. Meakin, Energy Technology 6, 1088, (1979).

1979

“Conductive Strontium Titanate Layers Produced by Boron Ion Implanation,” P.S. Nayar and C.M. Cooper, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 2826, (1979).

1979

“A Microstructural Study of the Heterojunction Materials of the CdS-Cu2S Solar Cells,” K.H. Norian and J.W. Edington, (1979).

1979

“Perspective on Photovoltaic Material and Device Measurements,” Allen Rothwarf, Solar Cells 1, 115, (1979).

1978

“Zn3P2: A Promising Photovoltaic Material,” A. Catalano, V. Dalal, W.E. Devaney, E.A. Fagen, R.B. Hall, J.V. Masi, J.D. Meakin, G. Warfield, N. Convers Wyeth and A.M. Barnett, Proc. 13th IEEE PVSC, 288, (1978).

1978

“Zn3P2 as a Photovoltaic Material,,” A.M. Barnett, A. Catalano, V. Dalal, E.A. Fagen, R.B. Hall, J.B. Masi, J.D. Meakin and G. Warfield, Proc. Int?l PV Solar Energy Conf., 644, (1978).

1978

“Achievement of 9.15% Efficiency in Thin Film CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells,” Allen M. Barnett, Julio A. Bragagnolo, Robert B. Hall, James E. Phillips and John D. Meakin, Proc. 13th IEEE PVSC, 419, (1978).

1978

“Junction Field and Recombination Phenomena in the CdS/Cu2S Solar Cell: Theory and Experiment,” A. Rothwarf, J.E. Phillips and N. Convers Wyeth, Proc. 13th IEEE PVSC, 399, (1978).

1978

“Measurement of Oxygen and Nitrogen Profiles in Steel,” A. Niiler and R.W. Birkmire, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 149, 301, (1978).

1978

“Formation and Properties of Cuprous Sulfide for Thin Film CdS/Cu2S Photovoltaic Devices,” B. Baron, A.W. Catalano and E.A. Fagen, Proc. 13th IEEE PVSC, 406, (1978).

1978

“Formation and Characterization of (CdZn)S Films and (CdZn)S/Cu2S Heterojunctions,” L.C. Burton, B.N. Baron, T.L. Hench and J.D. Meakin, J. Electronic Materials 7, 159, (1978).

1978

“Increases in Energy Conversion Efficiency for Thin-Film Polycrystalline CdS/Cu2S Photovoltaic Cells,” A.M. Barnett, W.E. Devaney, G.M. Storti and J.D. Meakin, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, ED-25, 377, (1978).

1978

“Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thin Film Cadmium Sulfide Solar Cells,” A.M. Barnett, J.D. Meakin and A. Rothwarf, Proc. Int?l PV Solar Energy Conf., 535, (1978).

1978

“Photon Loss Analysis of Thin Film CdS/Cu2S Photovoltaic Devices,” J.A. Bragagnolo, Proc. 13th IEEE PVSC, 412, (1978).

1978

“Design, Technology and Cost of Si Cells for Concentrator Applications,” V.L. Dalal, Proc. 13th IEEE PVSC, 1040, (1978).

1978

“Solar One – Active and Passive Contributions to Space Heating,” S.F. Faunce, J.J. Sliwkowski and T. Brockenbrough, Proc. 2nd Nat. Passive Solar Conf. 2, 621, (1978).

1978

“Application of Phase Change Materials in a Passive Solar System,” Stuart F. Faunce, Selcuk Guceri, John D. Meakin and Joseph J. Sliwkowski, Proc. 2nd Nat. Passive Solar Conf. 2, 475, (1978).

1978

“A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Manganese in Chloroplast Membranes,” S.B. Marks, T. Wydrzynski, Govindjee, P.G. Schmidt and H.S. Gutowsky, Biomolecular Structure and Function, ed. by P.F. Agris, R.N. Leoppky and B.D. Sykes, New York: Academic Press, (1978).

1978

“Manganese and Chloride: Their Role in Photosynthesis,” S.B. Marks, Govindjee and T.J. Wydrzynski, Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution, ed. by H. Metzner, London: Academic Press, (1978).

1978

“Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation by the Manganese in Aqueous Suspensions of Chloroplasts,” S.B. Marks, T.J. Wydrzynski, P.G. Schmidt, Govindjee and H.S. Gutowsky, Biochemistry, 2155, (1978).

1978

“Characterization of Thin Films of Vanadium Tetroxide Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy,” K.H. Norian, Thin Solid Films 54:L9-L11, (1978).

1978

“The Electron Microscopy of Thin Films of Vanadium Trioxide Using Composite Oyster Grids to Calibrate the Microscope,” K.H. Norian, Thin Solid Films 52:113, (1978).

1978

“The Superposition Principle for Current in Solar Cells,” A. Rothwarf, Proc. 13th IEEE PVSC, 1312, (1978).

1978

“Solar Energy Developments East and West,” M.D. Stallings and M. Telkes, U.S. Information Agency, East Asia/Pacific Branch: U.S. Govt. Publication, (1978).

1978

“Commercialization of Storage Assisted Air Conditioning Using Phase Change Materials,” Galen R. Frysinger, Joseph Sliwkowski, Allen M. Barnett, (1978).

1978

“Storage Assisted Residential Heating/Cooling Using Solar Energy ? Electric Heat Pump,” Galen R. Frysinger, Solar Energy Storage Options Workshop,, (1978).

1978

“Temperature Regulation of Residential Air Spaces Using PCM Thermal Wall Panels,” B. Farouk, S.I. Guceri, J.J. Sliwkowski, (1978).

1977

“Triple-peaked Scintillation Pulse-height Spectra for MeV Axially Channeled Ions in NaI(TD),” H.B. Dietrich, R.W. Birkmire, M. Luntz and R.B. Murray, Phys. Rev. B, 15(1), 23, (1977).

1977

“Scintillation Response of Nonactivated and Activated NaI to Random and Channeled Ions: Influence of the Luminescence Mechanism,” R.W. Birkmire, R.B. Murray and M. Luntz, Phys. Rev. B, 15(1), 31, (1977).

1977

“Heat Storage in Alloys,” C.E. Birchenall, (1977).

1977

“Design Analysis of the Thin-Film CdS-Cu2S Solar Cell,” Allen Rothwarf and Allen M. Barnett, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, ED-24(4), 381, (1977).

1977

“Carrier Transport in the Cu2S Part of the CdS/Cu2S Solar Cell,” K.W. Böer, (1977).

1977

“Solar Excitation of CdS/Cu2S Photovoltaic Cells,” K.W. Böer, (1977).

1977

“Effect of Heat Treatments on the Minority Carrier Diffusion Lengths and Junction Collection Factor in CuxS/CdS Solar Cells,” S.P. Shea and L.D. Partain, World Electrical Congress, 1, (1977).

1977

“Crystal Growth and Electrical Properties of Zn3P2,” A.W. Catalano, R.B. Hall and E.A. Fagen, Extended Abstracts 152nd Meeting The Electrochemical Society, 77(2), 434, (1977).

1977

“Design of High Intensity Solar Cells,” V.L. Dalal and A.R. Moore, J. Appl. Phys., 3(48), 1244, (1977).

1977

“Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thin-Film CdS Solar Cells,,” A.M. Barnett, J.D. Meakin and A. Rothwarf, Proc. Int?l Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., 535, (1977).

1977

“Recent Progress in Thin Film Polycrystalline Solar Cells Based on Cadmium Sulfide,,” John D. Meakin, SPIE, 114(2), 2, (1977).

1977

“The Stability and Reliability of CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells,” John D. Meakin and James E. Phillips, Nat. Bur. of Stand. Workshop, Stability of Thin Film Solar Cells and Materials Conf. Proc., NBS SP, 400-58, 17, (1977).

1977

“Sheet Resistance Component of Series Resistance in a Solar Cell as a Function of Grid Geometry,” N. Convers Wyeth, Solid-State Electron. 20, 629, (1977).

1977

“On Temperature Measurements of Metallic Substrates During Evaporation,” A. Amith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14(3), 803, (1977).

1977

“Measurements of Solar Radiation with a Portable Cu2S-CdS Radiometer,” H. M. Windawi, Proc. Conf. On the Physics of Solar Energy, Arab Development Institute, Special Publication, 351, (1977).

1977

“Inexpensive Portable Cu2S-CdS Radiometer,” H. Windawi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48(12), 1673, (1977).

1976

“Advances in the Development of Efficient Thin-Film CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells,” Allen M. Barnett and Allen Rothwarf, Proc. 12th IEEE PVSC, 544, (1976).

1976

“Cadmium Stannate Selective Optical Films for Solar Energy Applications,” L. Burton and G. Haacke, Proc. Nat. Solar PV Program Review Mtg., (1976).

1976

“The CdS/Cu2S Heterojunction,” K.W. Böer, Proc. Electrochemical Society, (1976).

1976

“The CdS/Cu2S Heterojunction Model,” K.W. Böer, Proc. Sharing the Sun, (1976).

1976

“CdS/Cu2S Solar Cell,” K.W. Böer, Annual Mtg. Am. Physical Soc., (1976).

1976

“CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells–A Low Cost Thin Film Crystalline Photovoltaic Device for Terrestrial Applications,,” J.D. Meakin, K.W. Böer, W. Devaney, J.E. Phillips, G.M. Storti, B.N. Baron, L. Burton, H. Hadley, Jr., A. Rothwarf, and W. Tseng, Proc. Sharing the Sun, (1976).

1976

“CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells Fabricated on Cd2SnO4 Silica Substrates,” L. Burton, T. Hench, G.M. Storti, and G. Haacke, J. Electrochemical Society, 12311, 1741, (1976).

1976

“Coolness Storage in a Sodium Sulfate Decahydrate Mixture,” J.D. Meakin, T. Stuchlik and F. Costello, ASME 76-WA/HT, 35, (1976).

1976

“Crystallite Size Considerations in Polycrystalline Solar Cells,,” A. Rothwarf, Proc. 12th IEEE PVSC, 488, (1976).

1976

“Development of Latent Heat of Fusion Type Materials,” P. Kando, M. Telkes and J.D. Meakin, Proc. Cooling and Heating: A National Forum, (1976).

1976

“Large Scale Solar Energy Utilization Festkörperprobleme,” K.W. Böer, Advances in Solid State Phys., (1976).

1976

“Materials (1) Thermal Energy Storage (2) Solar Energy Storage,” M. Telkes, in Thermal Energy Storage, Working Papers, NATO Science Committee, (1976).

1976

“Optimization of the CdS/Cu2S Backwall Solar Cell,” L. Burton, T. Hench and G. Haacke, J. Electrochemical Society 123, 93c, (1976).

1976

“Payback of Solar Systems,” K.W. Böer, Proc. Sharing the Sun, (1976).

1976

“The Photovoltaic Effect in CdS/Cu2S Heterojunction,” K.W. Böer, Phys. Rev. B 13, 5373, (1976).

1976

“The Relationships between Preparation Parameters, Operating Characteristics and Physical Processes in Cu2S/CdS Thin-Film Solar Cells,” G.M. Storti and J. Culik, Proc. 12th IEEE PVSC, 462, (1976).

1976

“Model of the CdS/Cu2S Heterojunction,” K. W. Böer, Proc. 12th IEEE PVSC, 475, (1976).

1976

“Solar Energy: How Soon?,” P. Kando, Textile Industries, (1976).

1976

“Solar Energy Storage,” M. Telkes, Critical Material Problems in Energy Production, Academic Press, (1976).

1976

“Solar Spectrum at Typical Clear Weather Days,” K.W. Böer, Proc. Sharing the Sun, (1976).

1976

“Spectral Response Measurements with White Light Bias,” W. Devaney, S. Lorenz and J.D. Meakin, NASA 2nd Solar Simulation Workshop, (1976).

1976

“Structural Characterization of CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells,” , Proc. 12th IEEE PVSC, (1976).

1976

“Studies Related to ZnxCd1-xS/Cu2S Solar Cells,,” L. Burton, W. Devaney, S. Lorenz, B.N. Baron, T. Hench and J.D. Meakin, Proc. 12th IEEE PVSC, 526, (1976).

1976

“Temperature Dependence of the Silicon Work Function by Means of a Retarding Potential Technique,” L.C. Burton, J. Appl. Phys., 47(3), 1189, (1976).

1976

“Theoretical Prospects of the CdS/Cu2S Solar Cell,,” A. Rothwarf, Int?l Conf. of Solar Electricity, 273, (1976).

1976

“Thermally Induced Changes in CuxS Films and Effect on CdS/CuxS Solar Cell Response,,” L. Burton and H. Windawi, J. Appl. Phys., 47(10), 4621, (1976).

1976

“Thermal Storage in Metals,,” M. Telkes and E. Birchenall, ISES Conf, 8, 138, (1976).

1976

“Thickness Optimization of Thin Film Solar Cell Electrodes,” L. Burton and T. Hench, Solid-State Electron., (1976).

1976

“Variation of Short-Circuit Current Spectral Response with Cu2-xS Composition in Thin Film Cu2-x Photovoltaic Cells,” N.C. Wyeth and A. W. Catalano, Proc. 12th IEEE PVSC, 471, (1976).

1976

“Zn3P2 for Solar Cells,” G. Warfield, Proc. ERDA Semiannual Solar, Photovoltaic Program, (1976).

1976

“ZnxCd1-xS Films for Use in Heterojunction Solar Cells,,” L. C. Burton and T. L. Hench, Appl. Phys. Lett., 29(9), 612, (1976).

1976

“Metallic Heat Storage Materials,” C.E. Birchenall, ERDA Thermal Energy Storage Program, OH, (1976).

1976

“Characterization of Glauber?s Salt as TES Material,” C.E. Birchenall, ERDA Thermal Energy Storage Program, OH, (1976).

1976

“Appendix to the Solar Spectrum at Typical Clear Weather Days,” K.W. Böer, (1976).

1975

“CdS Cells on Various Substrates,” L. Burton, Proc. Proc. Int?l Workshop on Cadmium Sulfide Solar Cells and Other Abrupt Heterojunctions, 405, (1975).

1975

“The CdS/Cu2S Heterojunction in Steady State,” K.W. Böer, Proc. Int?l NSF Workshop on Heterojunction, 194, (1975).

1975

“The CdS/Cu2S Heterojunction in Thermal Equilibrium,” K.W. Böer, Proc. Int?l NSF Workshop on Heterojunction, 159, (1975).

1975

“Diode Analysis with Parameter Discussion,” H. Hadley and J. E. Phillips, Proc. Int?l Workshop on CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells and Other Abrupt Heterojunction, Univ. of DE, (1975).

1975

“Direct Conversion of Solar Energy Through Photovoltaic Cells,” A. Rothwarf and K.W. Böer, Progress in Solid State Chemistry 10(2), 71, (1975).

1975

“The Influence of Air Heat Treatment of CuXS Sheet Resistance and CdS/CuXS Solar Cell Performance,” L. Burton and V. Ricca, Technical Report NSF/RANN/AER 72-03478 A04/TR75/7, (1975).

1975

“Materials for Photovoltaic Conversion,” K. W. Böer and A. Rothwarf, Annual Review of Material Science, (1975).

1975

“Minority Carriers in Cu2S,” A. Rothwarf, Proc. Int?l Workshop on Cadmium Sulfide Solar Cells and Other Heterojunctions NSF/AER75-15858, 167, (1975).

1975

“New Type of Cu2S/CdS Backwall Solar Cell,” L. Burton and G. Haacke., 396Proc. 10th Intersociety Energy Conversion Eng. Conf., (1975).

1975

“Optical Spot Scanning of Cu2S/CdS Cells,” N. C. Wyeth, Cadmium Sulfide Solar Cells and Other Abrupt Heterojunction, UD, NSF/AER75-15858, 575, (1975).

1975

“Orientation Effects in CdS Films,” R.B. Hall, Proc. Int?l Workshop on CdS Solar Cells and Other Abrupt Heterojunctions, 284, (1975).

1975

“Photovoltaics in Heterojunctions ? Particularly CdS/Cu2S,” Allen Rothwarf, Proc. Int?l Workshop on Cadmium Sulfide Solar Cells and Other Abrupt Heterojunctions, NSF/AER75-15858 9-50, (1975).

1975

“Reflection Mode of Operation of the Cu2S/CdS Solar Cell.,” L. Burton, A. Rothwarf, H. Hadley G.M. Storti, Proc. 11th IEEE PVSC, 476, (1975).

1975

“Relation Between Diode Parameters and the Band Model,” A. Rothwarf, Proc. Int?l Workshop on Cadmium Sulfide Solar Cells and Other Abrupt Heterojunctions, NSF/AER75-15858, 151, (1975).

1975

“Solar Electric and Thermal Conversion System in Close Proximity to the Consumer,” K.W. Böer, Proc. A1AA/AAS Solar Energy for Earth Conf.75: 628, (1975).

1975

“Solar-Electric Residential System Tests,” D.B. Miller and K.W. Böer, IEEE Summer Power Mtg., (1975).

1975

“Solar Energy: A Promising Alternative,” K.W. Böer, Nature Bulletin, National Audubon Society, (1975).

1975

“Solar Energy: A Promising Future,” K.W. Böer, Proc. Rochester Photographic and Engineering Conf., (1975).

1975

“Solar Energy Resources: Electric Power Generation,” K.W. Böer and L.L. Vat-Hull, Position Paper at Conf. On Magnitude and Deployment Schedule of Energy Resources, Oregon State Univ., (1975).

1975

“Solar House System Interfaced with the Power Utility Grid,” K.W. Böer, Proc. Int?l Technical Scientific Meeting on Space, 397, (1975).

1975

“Solar One: Two Years? Experience,” K.W. Böer, J.H. Higgins, J.K. O?Connor, Proc. 10th IEC EC Conf., Univ. of DE, 7, (1975).

1975

“Thermal Storage for Solar Heating and Cooling,” Maria Telkes, Proc. Workshop of Solar Energy Storage Subsystems for the Heating and Cooling of Buildings, NSF/RANN/75/041, 17, (1975).

1975

“Thermal Storage in Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate,” M. Telkes, Proc.10th IEC EC Conf, Univ. of DE, (1975).

1975

“Direct Conversion of Solar Energy through Photovoltaic Cells,” A. Rothwarf and K.W. Böer, JPSSC 10(2-B), Progress in Solid-State Chemistry 10 part 2, 71, (1975).

1975

“Capacitance Measurements of Schottky Diodes and Cu2S/CdS Cells on Thin Film CdS,” V.P. Singh, (1975).

1975

“Storage of Solar Heating/Cooling: An Overview,” Maria Telkes, Solar Workshop, Univ. of VA, (1975).

1975

“Life Expectancy of CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells on Terrestrial Surfaces,” H.M. Windawi, IEC EC Record, 392, (1975).

1975

“Thermal Storage Materials for Solar Energy Applications,” M. Telkes, Located in a separate binder., (1975).

1975

“Thermal Energy Storage,” M. Telkes, IEC EC ?75 Record, 111, (1975).

1975

“Material Aspects of CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells,” J.E. Phillips, H. Hadley, Jr., W. Windawi, W. Tseng and J.D. Meakin, Proc. 11th IEEE PVSC, 450, (1975).

1975

“CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells, Their Potential and Limitations,” K.W. Böer, H. Hadley and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 10th IEC EC Conf., Univ. of DE,, (1975).

1975

“CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells for Large Scale Terrestrial Applications,” K.W. Böer, L. Burton, H. Hadley, J.E. Phillips, A. Rothwarf and G. Storti, ISES, (1975).

1975

“Equivalent Circuit Analysis and Diode Parameter Discussion,” J.E. Phillips and H. Hadley, Jr., Proc. Int?l Workshop on CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells and Other Abrupt Heterojunctions, (1975).

1975

“Critical Production Steps in Evaporated Cells,,” J.E. Phillips, Proc. Int?l Workshop on CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells and Other Abrupt Heterojunctions, (1975).

1975

“Analysis of the Influence of Cell Characteristics on the Spectral Sensitivity of Cu2S/CdS Solar Cells,” A. Rothwarf, Terrestrial Photovoltaics Measurements Workshop, NASA TMX71802, 106, (1975).

1975

“Assessment of the International Workshop on CdS Solar Cells,” K.W. Böer, 514, (1975).

1975

“C-axis Orientation of Evaporated CdS Films Using Multiple Sources,” R.B. Hall, Bulletin American Phys. Soc. 20, (1975).

1974

“Recent Results in the Development of CdS/Cu2S Thin-Film Solar Cells,” K.W. Böer, C.D. Birchenall, I.G. Greenfield, H.C. Hadley, T.L. Lu, L. Partain, J.E. Phillips, J. Schultz, and W.F. Tseng, Proc 10th IEEE PVSC, 77, (1974).

1974

“Band Model for a CdS/Cu2S Junction,” K.W. Böer and J.E. Phillips, Proc. 10th IEEE PVSC, 125, (1974).

1974

“Bound-Exciton Effects in the Photocurrent Spectrum of CdS Single Crystals,” J.A. Bragagnolo, G.M. Storti, K.W. Böer, Phys. Status Solidi A 22, 639, (1974).

1974

“Cu2S/CdS Solar Cells Utilizing Cadmium Stannate Backwall Electrodes,” L. Burton, K.W. Böer, G. Haackle, 146th Meeting The Electrochemical Society, 121:297C., (1974).

1974

“New Results of CdS/Cu2S Solar Cell Research,” K.W. Böer, Proc. Int?l Conference on PV Power Generation (DGLR), 239, (1974).

1974

“Optical Bandgap Variation In the System (GaP)1-x (ZnX)x for O x .18.,” A.W. Catalano, T. Gregg, A. Wold, R. Beaulieu, P. Head, M. Glicksman, Solid State Communications 14: 421., (1974).

1974

“Solar Collectors of Solar One,” T. M. Kuzay, MAS Malik, K.W. Böer, Proc. NSF/Rann Workshop on Solar Collectors for Heating & Cooling of Buildings, AER 74-24639, (1974).

1974

“Solar Direct Energy Conversion System,” K.W. Böer, Annual Report of Nat?l Research Council, Nat?l Academy of Science, (1974).

1974

“Solar One: The Delaware Solar House and Results Obtained During the First Year of Operation,” K.W. Böer, Proc. of Int?l Conf. on PV Power Generation (DGLR), 627, (1974).

1974

“Thermally Stimulated Desorption from Class I CdS Crystals and Its Effect of Their Electrical Properties,” J. A. Bragagnolo, C. Wright and K.W. Böer, Phys. Status Solidi A 24, 147, (1974).

1974

“The Use of Solar Energy in Distributed System,” K.W. Böer and G. Warfield, Presented at ICASALS Symp. “On Frontiers of the Semi-Arid World,”, Lubbock TX: Texas Tech Univ. Press, (1974).

1974

“Effect of Heat Treatment on the Photoelectric Properties of Class I CdS Single Crystals,” by J.A. Bragagnolo and K.W. Böer, Phys. Status Solidi A 21, 291, (1974).

1974

“Electron Diffraction Study of Phases in the Surface Layer of CdS-CuXS Solar Cells,” W.F. Tseng and I.G. Greenfield, Phys. Status Solidi A 26, 643, (1974).

1974

“Spectral response measurements of minority-carrier diffusion length in Zn3P2,” N. Convers Wyeth and A. Catalano, J. Appl. Phys. 50(3), 1403, (1974).

1974

“Research and Development of Home Heating Through Solar Energy in Delaware ? A New Industry with Benefits for Consumer and the State of Delaware,” K.W. Böer, (1974).

1974

“Solar Energy Storage,” M. Telkes, ASHRAE Journal, 38, (1974).

1973

“The Solar House and Its Portent,” K.W. Böer, ChemTech, 394, (1973).

1973

“Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings,” K.W. Böer, NSF/RANN Symp., (1973).

1973

“Optimal Solar Array Design and Accelerated Life Tests of CdS/Cu2S Solar Cells,” Larry Partain and Mohamed Sayed, IEDM Technical Digest, 434, (1973).

1972

“Future Large Scale Terrestrial Use of Solar Energy,” K.W. Boer, Proc. 25th Annual Power Sources Conference, (1972).